بررسی کارایی مصرف آب آفتابگردان در روش های آبیاری سطحی و فتیله‌ای

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد اگرواکولوژی، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده علوم و مهندسی کشاورزی دانشگاه رازی.

2 عضو هیئت‌علمی گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده علوم و مهندسی کشاورزی دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه.

چکیده

خشکی مهم‌ترین عامل محدودکننده تولید گیاهان زراعی در مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشک است. به دلیل کاهش بارندگی، گرم شدن سطح کره زمین و هدر رفتن مقدار قابل‌توجهی از آب­های سطحی در اثر تبخیر، این پژوهش به‌منظور تعیین میزان مصرف آب در سامانه آبیاری فتیله­ای در مقایسه با سامانه آبیاری متداول (آبیاری سطحی) و طراحی و عملیاتی کردن سامانه آبیاری فتیله­ای در مزرعه انجام شد. این آزمایش در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده علوم و مهندسی کشاورزی دانشگاه رازی در سال 1394 اجرا شد.تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل، آبیاری معمولی به­عنوان تیمار شاهد و آبیاری فتیله­ای بود. نتایج نشان داد که آبیاری فتیله­ای نسبت به آبیاری سطحی محتوای نسبی آب برگ، سطح برگ، ارتفاع بوته و ساقه اصلی بیشتری را دارا بود. ازنظر وزن مخصوص برگ تفاوتی بین سامانه‌های آبیاری وجود نداشت. همچنین آبیاری فتیله­ای نسبت به آبیاری سطحی ازنظر مصرف آب کاراتر و ماده خشک بیشتری تولید کرد. علت احتمالا این است که سله خاک و خیس شدن سطح خاک در آبیاری فتیله­ای کمتر است. دسترسی دائمی به آب و عدم شرایط غرقابی هم می­تواند رشد گیاه را بهبود ببخشد و کارایی مصرف آب و تولید ماده خشک را افزایش دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


Abbasi Seyahjani, A., Farhvash, F., Kazemi Arbat, H.A., Khorshidi benam, M.B., 2013. Effect of drought stress on grain yield and some morphological and physiological characteristics of sunflower. Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences. 5(2), 193 – 196. [In Persian with English Summary].
Akhavan, S., Mostsfszadeh-Fard, B., Mousavi, S.F., GhadamiFiroz-Abadi, A. Bahrami, B., 2005. Effect of irrigation amount and method on yield, yield components and quality of potato. Agricultural Research. 5(2), 27 – 40. [In Persian with English Summary].
Bagali, A.N., Patil, H.B., Guled, M.B., and Patil, R.V., 2012. Effect of scheduling of drip irrigation on growth, yield and water use efficiency of onion (Allium cepa L.). Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 25 (1), 116 – 119.
Bhattarai, S., McHugh, J., Lotz G., Midmore, D., 2003. Physiological responses of cotton to subsurface drip irrigation on heavy clay Soil. Proceedings of the 11th Australian Agronomy Conference, 2-6 February 2003, Geelong, Victoria.
Blum, A., 1999. Towards standard assay of drought resistance in crop plants. In J.M. Ribaut and D. Poland (Eds). M. A strategic planning workshop, 21-25 June 1999. CIMMYT Press, El Batan, Mexico.
Bumgarner, M.L., Salifu, K.F., Jacobs, D.F., 2008. Subirrigation of Quercusrubra seedlings: nursery stock quality, media chemistry, and earlyfield performance. Horticulture Science. 43, 2179–2185.
Earl, H.J., Davis, R.F., 2003. Effect of drought stress on leaf and canopy whole radiation use efficiency and yield of maize. Agronomy Journal. 95, 688 – 696.
Eskandari, A., Khazaie, H.R., Nezami, A., Kafi, M., 2011. Study the effects of irrigation regimes on yield and some qualitative characteristics of three cultivars of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Journal of Water and Soil. 25(2), 240 – 247. [In Persian with English Summary].
Farokhi, E., Nabipoor, A.R., Daneshian J., 2016. Manual of sunflower production in different areas of Iran. Seed and Plant Improvement Institue Press. From. www.ganrrc.org.ir/web/wp-content/.../10/fdani-Sunflower.pdf
Farre, I., Faci, J.M., 2006. Comparative response of maize (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) to deficit irrigation in a Mediterranean environment. Agricultural Water Management. 83, 135- 143.
Goldhamer, D. A., 2005. Tree Water Requirements and Regulated Deficit Irrigation. Pistachio Production Manual. 4th Ed. Ferguson L. University of California, Davis.
Hamed, A., Akbari, Gh. A., Khosh kholgh sima, N.A., Shirani Rad, A.H., Jabbari, H., Tabatabaee, S.E., 2015. Evaluating the agronomic traits and some physiological traits in rape seed cultivars under drought conditions. Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences. 7(2), 155 – 177. [In Persian with English Summary].
Heydari, N., 2011. Determination and evaluation of water use efficiency of some major crops under farmers' management in Iran. Journal of Water and Irrigation Management. 1(2), 43 – 57. [In Persian with English Summary].
Humphreys, L., Fawcett, B., O'Neill, Ch., Muirhead, W., 2005. Maize under sprinkler, drip and furrow irrigation. IREC Farmer’s Newsletter. 170, 35-38.
Karimi, A., Navshadi, M., Ahmadzadeh, M., 2009. Effects of super absorbent polymer (Igita) application on soil water, plant growth and irrigation interval. Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources. 12(46), 403 – 414. [In Persian with English Summary].
Khajehpour, M.R., 2009. Industrial Plants. Jihade-Daneshgahi of Isfahan Press. 580p. [In Persian].
Kochaki, A., Rashed Mohasel, M.H., Nasiri Mahalati, M. SadrAbadi, R., 1998. Physiological Basic of Crop Growth and Development. Astane Ghodse-Razavi Press. 404 p. [In Persian].
Kochaki, A., Sarmadnia, Gh. H., 2008. Physiology of Crop Plants. Jihade-Daneshgahi of Mashhad Press. 400 p. [In Persian].
Maleki-nejad, H., 2003. Water use efficiency and crop yield under pot and furrow irrigation systems. Journal of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources. 10(1), 27 – 37. [In Persian with English Summary].
Masomi, T., Rahimikhoob, A., Ghorbanijavid, M., Nazarifar, M.H., 2015. The effect of intermittent deficit irrigation on yield, yield components and water productivity of maize Se-704. Iranian Journal of Irrigation and Drainage. 4(8), 810 – 816. [In Persian with English Summary].
Masuda, M., Fukumoto, S., 2008. Potential for tomato cultivation using capillary wick-watering method. Scientific Reports of the Faculty of Agriculture. Okayama University.97, 49–54.
MedCalc Software., 2016. Digimizer image analysis software. https://www.digimizer.com/.
Mousavi, M., Myrlatifi, S.M., Tabatabai, S.H., 2015. Effect of installation depth and distance of subsurface irrigation pipes on grass growth under municipal wastewater use. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Soil and Water Sciences. 19(71), 129–138. [In Persian with English Summary].
Munamava, M., Riddoch, I., 2001. Responses of three sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.), Moench] varieties to soil moisture stress at different developmental stages. Journal South African Journal of Plant and Soil. 18, 75-79.
Najafi, P., 1385. Effect of using sub-surface drip irrigation to increasing WUE in irrigation of some crops. Pajouhesh and Sazandegi. 73, 156–162. [In Persian with English Summary].
Rafeie, M., Karimi, M., Noormohammadi, Gh., Nadian, H.A., 2004. The effects of drought, phosphorus and zinc rates on the vertical distribution of leaf area, canopy light interception and its relationship with grain yield in maize (Zea mays L.). Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences. 5(1), 1 – 11. [In Persian with English Summary].
Rokhsar, Sh., 2006. Improving water use efficincy by underground drip irrigation. National Conference on Irrigation and Drainage Network Management, Shahid Chamran University, College of Water Sciences. [In Persian].
Saeed, L.A.M., Elnadi, A.H., 1997. Irrigation effects on the growth, yield and water useefficiency of alfalfa. Irrigation Science. 17, 63-68.
Sawain, M., Omaima, U.A., EL-Behary, AbdHadid, A.F., 2002. Effect of irrigation level and N source on green bean productivity. Egyptian Journal of Applied Sciences. 47(10), 326 – 347.
Sepaskhah, A.R., Sichani, S.A., Bahrani, B., 1976. Subsurface and Furrow irrigation evaluation for bean production.Transactions of the ASAE. 19, 1089 – 1097.
Shamili. M., 2005. A sight on irrigation systems in Karun culture and industry.Mechanized Surface Irrigation Workshop. Seed and plant improvement institute. Karaj. 4 Dec, 2005. [In Persian].
Son, J.E., Oh, M.M., Lu, Y.J., Kim, K.S., Giacomelli, G.A., 2006. Nutrient-flow wick culture system for potted plant production: System characteristics and plant growth. Scientia Horticulturae. 107, 392 – 398.
Turner, N.C., Kramer, P.J. 1980. Adaptation of Plant to Water and High Temperature Stress. Wiley Interscience, New York.
Wesonga, J.M., Wainaina, C., Ombwara, F.K., Masinde, P.W., Home, P.G., 2014. Wick Material and Media for Capillary Wick Based Irrigation System in Kenya. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) ISSN (Online). 2319-7064.
[WIO] Wick Irrigation Outline – Draft 2, 2016. From www.facebook.com/#!/pages/Irrigation-subsurface/186965427995490