تأثیر پوترسین و نیترات کلسیم بر خصوصیات فیزیولوژیک و عملکرد کنجد (.Sesamum indicum L) تحت تأثیر تنش رطوبتی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند

2 عضو هیئت‌علمی گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند

3 گروه پژوهشی گیاه و تنش‌های محیطی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثرات کاربرد پوترسین و نیترات کلسیم بر رنگ‌دانه‌های فتوسنتزی و عملکرد کنجد تحت تنش رطوبتی آزمایشی به‌صورت اسپلیت‌پلات­ فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال 1397 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند انجام شد. در این آزمایش تنش رطوبتی در سه سطح (100% (شاهد)، 75% و 50% نیاز آبی کنجد) به‌عنوان فاکتور اصلی و محلول‌پاشی نیترات کلسیم (صفر، 5 و 10 میلی مولار) و پوترسین (صفر و 0.5 میلی ­مولار) و شاهد (عدم محلول­ پاشی) به‌عنوان فاکتور فرعی موردبررسی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که برهمکنش تنش رطوبتی، نیترات کلسیم و پوترسین بر روی محتوی کلروفیل، پرولین، شاخص سبزینگی، تعداد دانه در کپسول، تعداد کپسول در بوته و عملکرد دانه معنی ­دار بودند. سطح 50% نیاز آبی موجب کاهش کلروفیل a (42%)، کلروفیل b (31%)، تعداد دانه در کپسول (43%)، تعداد کپسول در بوته (19%) و عملکرد دانه (40%) و افزایش میزان پرولین (21%) و شاخص سبزینگی (12%) شد. محلول‌پاشی نیترات کلسیم 10 میلی­ مولار و مصرف پوترسین ضمن کاهش اثرات ناشی از کمبود رطوبت موجب افزایش صفات مذکور نسبت به تیمار عدم محلول‌پاشی گردید. بالاترین عملکرد دانه (919.2 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در شرایط بدون تنش و مصرف هم‌زمان پوترسین و 10 میلی­ مولار نیترات کلسیم حاصل شد که با تیمار 75% نیاز آبی تفاوت معنی­دار نداشت. به‌طورکلی تنش رطوبتی 50% نیاز آبی منجر به کاهش عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد کنجد شد. کاربرد نیترات کلسیم در غلظت 10 میلی­ مولار و پوترسین 0.5 میلی­ مولار توانستند اثرات مضر ناشی از تنش رطوبتی را کاهش داده و بهبود عملکرد را سبب شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


 
Abbasi, A., Shekari, F., Mosavi, S.B., Javanmard, A., 2017. The effect of zinc sulfate on quantity and of wheat grain under drought stress. Cereal Research. 7, 217-233. [In Persian with English summary]. https://doi.org/10.22124/c.2017.2548
Abu-Kpawoh, J.C., Xi, Y.F., Zhang, Y.Z., Jin, Y.F., 2002. Polyamine accumulation following Hot water dips influence chilling injury and decay in friar plum fruit. Food Chemistry and Toxicology. 67, 2649-2653. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2002.tb08793.x
Ahmadi, A., Backer, A., 2000. Stomatal and non-stomatal limitations of photosynthesis under water stress condition in wheat plant. Iranian Journal Agriculture Science. 31, 813-825. [In Persian with English Summary].
Ahmad, P., Sarwat, M., Bhat, N.A., Wani, M.R., Kazi, A.G., Tran, L.S., 2015. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in (Brassica juncea L.) by calcium application involves various physiological and biochemical strategies. Plos One.10, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114571
Ahmadi, J., Seyfi, M.M., Amini, M., 2012. Effect of spraying micronutrients Fe, Zn and Ca on grain and oil yield of sesame (Sesamus indicum L.) varieties. Journal of Crop production. 5(3), 115-130. [In Persian with English Summary].
Allen, R.G., Pereira, L.S., Raes, D., Smith, M., 1998. Crop evapotranspiration-Guidelines for computing crop water requirements – FAO Irrigation and drainage paper 56. Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nations. Italy. 304p.
Amirfazli, N., Heydai, M., Zafariyan, Ph., Ghorbani, H., 2015. Evalution of sesame leaf chlorophyll index under drought stress and foliar application on Calcium nitrate. p. 309-313. Set of National Conference on New ideas in Agriculture Environment Tourism. Ardebil. Iran. [In Persian].
Ansar, Z., Baradaran-Firoozabadi, M., Galeshi, S., Gholami, A., Parsiyan, M., 2019. Effect of marjoram and Thyme on yield, yield components and antioxidant enzymes of sesame under water deficit stress conditions. Journal of Crops Improvement (Journal of Agriculture). 21, 149-166. [In Persian].
Ansar, Z., Baradaran Firouzabadi, M., Galeshi, S., Gholami, A., Parsaian, M., 2019. The effect of Origanum vulgare and Zatria mutifora essence on yield, yield components and antioxidant enzymes of Sesamum indicum L under drought stress. Journal of Crops Improvement. 21(2), 149-166. https://doi.org/10.22059/jci.2019.268418.2107
Arnon, D.I., 1949. Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts. Polyhenoloxidases in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiology. 24, 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.24.1.1
Ashraf, M., 2003. Relationships between leaf gas exchange characteristics and growth of differently adapted populations of Blu panicgrass (Panicum antidotale Retz.) under salinity or waterlogging. Plant Science 165, 69-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9452(03)00128-6
Bakry, C., El-Hariri, B., Sadak, D. Sh., El-Bassiouny, M., 2012. Drought stress mitigation by foliar application of salicylic acid in two linseed varieties grown under newly reclaimed sandy soil. Journal of Applied Sciences Research. 8, 3503–3514. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-014-1762-y
Bates, L.S., Waldren, R. P., Teare, I.D., 1973. Rapid determination of free prolin for water stress studies. Plant and Soil. 39, 205-207. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00018060
Behroz, Z., Khodabandeh, N., Madani. H., 2009. Study of bush accumulation and division of nitrogen fertilizer on agronomic characteristic of local sesame jiroft area. New Finding in agricultural. 4, 91-99. [In Persian with English Summary].
Bybordi, A., 2012. Study effect of salinity on some physiologic and morphologic properties of two grape cultivars. Life Science Journal. 9, 1092-1101.
Dahanayake, N., Alawathugoda, C.J., Ranawake, A. L., 2015. Effect of water stress on yield and some yield components of three selected oil crops; groundnut, sunflower and sesame. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 5,1-5.
Dargahi, Y., Asghari, A., Shkarpour, M., Rasol zadeh, A., Eshghi, A., Shiri, M. R., 2011. Evaluation of water stress tolerance in sesame cultivars based on tolerance indices. Journal of Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production. 21, 119-133. [In Persian with English Summary].
El-Quesni, F.E.M., Mahgoub, M. H Kandil, M.M., 2010. Impact of foliar spray of inorganic fertilizer and bioregulator on vegetative growth and chemical composition of Syngonium Podophyllum L. plant at Nubaria. Journal of American Science. 6, 288-294.
Eskandari, H., Kazemi, K., 2019. Evaluation of the effect of irrigation levels and soil fertility management on sesame seed and oil yield (Sesamum indicum L.). Environmental Stresses in Crop ScienceS. 12, 111-122. [In Persian with English Summary]. https://doi.org/10.22077/escs.2018.1254.1256
Faraji-mehmani, A., Esamaielpour, B., Sefikon, F., Khorramdel, S., 2016. Effect of foliar spraying with salicylic acid and Putrescine on growth characteristics and yield of summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research. 14, 73-85. [In Persian with English Summary]. https://doi.org/10.22067/gsc.v14i1.33631
Fathi, A., Firoozabad, M., Ameriyan, M.R., Gholipour, M., 2017. Effect of sodium nitroprusside and calcium carbonate on some physiological traits of sesame under salinity tension conditions. Crop Physiology Journal. 35(9), 5-20. [In Persian with English Summary].
Gerami, M., Akbarpour, V., 2019. The effect of putrescine and salicylic acid on physiological characteristics and antioxidant in Stevia rebaudiana B. under salinity stress. Journal of Crop Breeding. 11, 40-54. [In Persian with English Summary]. https://doi.org/10.29252/jcb.11.29.40
Ghasemi Siani, E., Fallah, S., Tadayyon, A., 2011. Study on yield and seed quality of Plantago ovata Forssk under different nitrogen treatments and deficit irrigation. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 27, 517-528. [In Persian with English Summary]. https://doi.org/10.22092/ijmapr.2011.6392
Gholipour, S., Ebadi, A., 2017. Study of adaptation metabolites and antioxidant enzymes activity of wheat genotypes under moisture stress conditions. Journal of Plant Process and Function. 19, 219-232. [In Persian with English Summary].
Gupta, S., Gupta, N. K., 2011. Field efficacy of exogenously applied putrescine in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under water-stress conditions. The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 81, 516-519.
Hajiboland, R., Ebrahimi, N., 2011. Growth, photosynthesis and phenolic metabolism in tobacco plants under salinity and application of polyamines. Iranian Journal of Plant Biology. 8, 13-26. [In Persian with English Summary].
Harirforoush, M., Sorooshzade, A., Ghnati, F., 2019. Study the effect of potassium nitrate and polyamines putrescine on the growth and biochemical characteristics of canola under flooded conditions. Journal of Plant Process and Function. 8(30), 341-351. [In Persian with English Summary].
Hosseinzadeh, S.R., Cheniany, M., 2014. Effects of foliar application of methanol on physiological characteristics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under drought stress. Iranian Journal of Pulses Research. 5, 71-82. [In Persian with English Summary]. https://doi.org/10.22067/ijpr.v1393i2.47031
Ibrahim, M.F.M., Faisal, A., Shehata, S.A., 2016. Calcium chloride alleviates water stress in sunflower plants through modifying some physio-biochemical parameters. American- Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. 16, 677-693.
Jiang, W.B., Huang, H.Y., Hu, Y.W., Zhu, S.W., Wang, Z.Y., Lin, W.H., 2013. Brassinosteroid regulates seed size and shape in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology. 162, 1965–1977. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.113.217703
Jinn-Chin, Y. Lao-Dar, J., Denise, Y. F., Cheng-Wei, L., Sheng-Ju, W., 2009. Exogenous putrescine reduces flooding-induced oxidative damage by increasing the antioxidant properties of Welsh onion. Scientia Horticulturae. 120, 306-314. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2008.11.020
Lawlor, D.W., Cornic, G., 2006. Photosynthetic carbon assimilation and associated metabolism in relation to water deficits in higher plants. Plant, Cell and Environment. 25, 275-294. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0016-8025.2001.00814.x
Madani, B., Mirshekari, A., Sofa, A., Muda Mohamad, M.T., 2016. Preharvest calcium applications improve postharvest quality of papaya fruits (Carica papaya L. cv. Eksotika II). Journal of Plant Nutrition. 39, 1483-1492. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2016.1143500
Mauad, M., Crusciol, C.A.C., Nascente, A.S., Filho, H.G. Lima, G.P., 2016. Effects of silicon and drought stress on biochemical characteristics of leaves of upland rice cultivars. Revista Ciencia Agronomica Journal. 47, 532-539. https://doi.org/10.5935/1806-6690.20160064
Meher, Shivakrishna, P., Ashok Reddy, K., Manohar Rao, D., 2018. Effect of PEG-6000 imposed drought stress on RNA content, relative water content (RWC), and chlorophyll content in peanut leaves and roots. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 25, 285- 289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2017.04.008
Mehrabi, Z., Ehsanzadeh, P., 2011. A study on physiological attributes and grain yield of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) cultivars under different soil moisture regimes. Journal of Crops Improvement. 1, 75-88. [In Persian with English Summary].
Mensah, J.K., Obadoni, B.O., Eruotor, P., Onome-Trieguna, F., 2006. Simulated flooding and drought effects on germination, growth and yield parameters of sesame. African Journal Biotechnology 13, 1249-1253.
Moghadam, A., Shiranirad, A.H., Khorgami, A., Rafiei, M., 2011. Study of effects of drought stress on growth stage on grain yield and chlorophyll amount of leaves of 4 spring cultivars in Khorramabad weather conditions. Crop Physiology Journal. 9, 107-119. [In Persian with English Summary].
Munns, R., Termaat, A., 1986. Whole-plant responses to salinity. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology. 13, 143-160. https://doi.org/10.1071/PP9860143
Mustafavi, S.H., Naghdi Badi, H., Sękara, A., Mehrafarin, A., Janda, T., Ghorbanpour, M., Rafiee, H., 2018. Polyamines and their possible mechanisms involved in plant physiological processes and elicitation of secondary metabolites. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum. 40, 102. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-018-2671-2
Nikolaeva, M.K., Maevskaya, S.N., Shugaev, A.G., Bukhov, N.G., 2010. Effect of drought on cholorophyll content and antioxidant enzyme activities in leaves of tree wheat cultivars varying in productivity. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology. 57, 87-95.
Parmoon, G., Ebadi, A., Jahanbakhsh, S., & Hashemi, M. 2019. Physiological response of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) to drought stress and plant growth regulators. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 66, 795-805.
Sadeghi Lotfabadi, S., Kafi, M., Khazai, H.R., 2010. Effect of calcium, potassium and method of application on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) morphological and physiological traits in the presence of salinity. Journal of Water and Soil. 24, 385-393. [In Persian with English Summary]. https://doi.org/10.22067/jsw.v0i0.3255
Sarmadnia, Gh, H., Koocheki, A., 2000. Physiological aspects of dryland. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Publication. 424p. [In Persian].
Shams, H., 2009. Quantitative and qualitative changes of bovine plant aerial part due to solubility of Calcium nitrate. Journal of Medicinal Plants. 8, 138-144. [In Persian with English Summary].
Sharafzadeh, S., Zare, M., 2011. Effect of drought stress on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of some medicinal plants from Lamiaceae family. Advances in Environmental Biology 5, 2058-2062.
Shu, S., Guo, S. R., Yuan, L.Y., 2012. A review: polyamines and photosynthesis. In: Najafpour, M (ed.), Advances in Photosynthesis–Fundamental Aspects. pp. 440-484. IntechOpen, London. https://doi.org/10.5772/1385
Shyu, Y. S., Hwang, L.S., 2002. Antioxidative activity of the crude extract of lignan glycosides from unroasted Burma black sesame meal. Food Research International. 35, 357-365. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(01)00130-2
Siddiqui, M.H., Khaishany, M.Y., Qutami, M.A., Whaibi, M.H., Grover, A., Ali, H.M., Wahibi, M.S., Bukhari, N.A., 2015. Response of different genotypes of faba bean plant to drought stress. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 16, 10214-10227.
Tan, W., Meng, Q. W., Brestic, M., Olsovska, K. Yang, X. H., 2011. Photosynthesis is improved by exogenous calcium in heat‐stressed tobacco plants. Journal of Plant Physiology. 168, 2063–2071. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2011.06.009
Tavallali, V., Rahemi, M., Panahi, B., 2008. Calcium induces salinity tolerance in pistachio rootstocks. Fruits. 63, 285-296. https://doi.org/10.1051/fruits:2008024
Ye, Q., Zhu, W., Li, L., Zhang, S., Yin, Y., Ma, H., Wang, X., 2010. Brassinosteroids control male fertility by regulating the expression of key genes involved in Arabidopsis anther and pollen development. proceeding of the National Academy Science USA. 107, 6100–6105.
Yiu, J.C., Juang, L.D., Tan Fang, D.Y., Cheng-Wei, L., 2009. Exogenous putrescine reduces flooding-induced oxidative damage by increasing the antioxidant properties of Welsh onion. Science Horticulture. 120, 306-314. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2008.11.020
Zegaoui, Z., Planchais, S., Cabassa, S., Djebbar, R., Belbachir, O.A., Carol, P., 2017. Variation in relative water content, proline accumulation and stress gene expression in two cowpea landraces under drought. Journal of Plant Physiology. 218, 26-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/10.1016/j.jplph.2017.07.009
 
دوره 15، شماره 2
سیاست دسترسی آزاد
تیر 1401
صفحه 335-346
  • تاریخ دریافت: 03 آبان 1399
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 19 آذر 1399
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 19 آذر 1399
  • تاریخ اولین انتشار: 31 اردیبهشت 1401