مطالعه تنش کمبود آب بر ویژگی‌های فیزیولوژیکی، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد دانه ارقام لوبیاچیتی (.Phaseolus vulgaris L) در شرایط آب و هوایی یاسوج

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه یاسوج

2 استادیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه یاسوج، یاسوج

3 استاد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه یاسوج

چکیده

کمبود آب یکی از چالش‌های جدی برای تولید محصولات زراعی حساس به تنش خشکی از جمله لوبیا است. برای مطالعه اثر سطوح تنش خشکی بر برخی از ویژگی‌های فیزیولوژیکی، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ارقام مختلف لوبیا، آزمایشی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی 1393 به‌صورت اسپلیت پلات در مزرعه تحقیقاتی در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در دانشگاه یاسوج اجرا شد. فاکتور اصلی آزمایش شامل آبیاری نرمال (آبیاری پس از 4 روز‌)، تنش ملایم (آبیاری پس از 7 روز‌) و تنش شدید (آبیاری پس از 10 روز‌) و فاکتور فرعی شامل چهار رقم لوبیا (تلاش، صدری، محلی خمین، کوشا) بود. صفات مورد ارزیابی شامل شاخص کلروفیل، کارآیی مصرف آب، پرولین برگ، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد (تعداد غلاف در بوته، تعداد دانه در بوته، تعداد دانه در غلاف، وزن صد دانه، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد زیستی و شاخص برداشت) بودند. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که برهمکنش تنش خشکی×رقم بر ویژگی‌های عملکرد دانه، عملکرد زیستی، شاخص برداشت، شاخص کلروفیل و پرولین برگ معنی‌دار نبود، اما بر ویژگی‌های تعداد غلاف در بوته، تعداد دانه در بوته، تعداد دانه در غلاف، وزن صد دانه و کارآیی مصرف آب تأثیر معنی‌دار داشت. نتایج بیانگر کاهش میانگین ویژگی-های مورد بررسی بجز پرولین برگ در شرایط تنش خشکی نسبت به شرایط آبیاری نرمال بود. به‌طوری که در شرایط آبیاری نرمال بیشترین میزان عملکرد دانه با میانگین 2245.80 کیلوگرم در هکتار و در شرایط تنش شدید کمترین میزان عملکرد دانه با میانگین 1808.80 کیلوگرم در هکتار وجود داشت. میزان کاهش کلروفیل و عملکرد زیستی در رقم تلاش نسبت به رقم کوشا به ترتیب در حدود 26 و 17 درصد به دست آمد. با توجه به نتایج آزمایش رقم تلاش نسبت به تنش خشکی تحمل بیشتر و رقم کوشا حساسیت بیشتری نشان داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

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دوره 15، شماره 2
سیاست دسترسی آزاد
تیر 1401
صفحه 347-360
  • تاریخ دریافت: 02 مهر 1399
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 06 آذر 1399
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 11 آذر 1399
  • تاریخ اولین انتشار: 18 اسفند 1400