تأثیر تنش خشکی آخر فصل بر برخی خصوصیات مورفوفیزیولوژیک ارقام ایرانی گلرنگ در منطقه کرج

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد شهرقدس، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد شهرقدس، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار موسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران.

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر تنش خشکی آخر فصل بر برخی خصوصیات مورفوفیزیولوژیک ارقام ایرانی گلرنگ، آزمایشی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر کرج انجام شد. این تحقیق به صورت آزمایش کرت‏های یکبار خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در طول فصل زراعی 96-1395 انجام شد. فاکتور اصلی این آزمایش شامل دو سطح رطوبتی بدون تنش خشکی و تنش خشکی در مرحله پر شدن دانه (فاکتور اصلی) بود و پنج رقم ایرانی گلرنگ سطوح فاکتور فرعی آزمایش را تشکیل دادند. نتایج حاصل نشان داد تنش خشکی آخر فصل تاثیر معنی‌داری بر صفات مورفوفیزیولوژیک و عملکرد دانه ارقام گلرنگ داشت و سبب کاهش ارتفاع گیاه، تعداد طبق، قطر طبق، تعداد دانه، وزن هزار دانه و عملکرد دانه در ارقام گلرنگ شد. از سوی دیگر تنش خشکی موجب کاهش محتوی نسبی آب برگ، شاخص سطح برگ و افزایش دمای کانوپی در ارقام گلرنگ گردید. تنش خشکی عملکرد دانه و محتوی روغن دانه گلرنگ را به ترتیب و بطور میانگین 14.9 و 2.7 درصد در مقایسه با شرایط بدون خشکی کاهش داد. واکنش ارقام مختلف گلرنگ نیز از نظر صفات اکوفیزیولوژیک به تنش خشکی متفاوت بود. به‌طوری‌که رقم پرنیان به سبب تعداد طبق و وزن هزار دانه بیشتر، بیشترین عملکرد دانه را در هر دو سطح آبیاری بدون تنش و تنش خشکی به ترتیب با میانگین 2150 و 1773 کیلوگرم بر هکتار داشت. بیشترین کاهش عملکرد دانه در اثر تنش خشکی نیز در رقم صفه و به میزان 24.8 درصد مشاهده شد. در بین ارقام مورد بررسی رقم پرنیان دارای بالاترین محتوی نسبی آب برگ و شاخص سطح برگ و کمترین دمای کانوپی در شرایط تنش خشکی بود که با عملکرد بهتر این رقم در ارتباط بود. با توجه به نتایج بدست آمده رقم پرنیان یک رقم متحمل به تنش خشکی بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


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