بررسی اثر تراکم و محلول‌پاشی اسیدهیومیک بر عملکرد کمی و جذب عناصر ذرت دانه‌ای (.Zea mays L) تحت شرایط تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت، پردیس علوم و تحقیقات خوزستان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

2 گروه زراعت، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

تنش‌های محیطی از قبیل تنش خشکی یکی از موانع اساسی در تولید محصولات زراعی در بسیاری از نقاط جهان خصوصاً مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک نظیر ایران محسوب می‌شوند. لذا به منظور ارزیابی اثر محلول‌پاشی اسیدهیومیک در شرایط تنش خشکی بر عملکرد دانه و جذب عناصر دانه ذرت در تراکم‌های مختلف بوته، آزمایشی به صورت کرت‌های دو بار خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار طی سال های زراعی 95-1394 و 96-1395 در مزرعه-ای واقع در شهرستان دهلران اجرا شد. فاکتور اصلی شامل تنش خشکی با سه سطح (آبیاری مطلوب، قطع آبیاری در مرحله 6 تا 8 برگی و قطع آبیاری در مرحله گل‌تاجی) بود. فاکتور فرعی شامل محلول‌پاشی اسیدهیومیک با سه سطح (عدم مصرف اسیدهیومیک)، 2 و 4 لیتر در هکتار اسیدهیومیک) و فاکتور فرعی فرعی شامل سه تراکم بوته (60، 75 و 90 هزار بوته در هکتار) بود. نتایج نشان داد تأثیر تنش خشکی و اسید هیومیک بر عملکرد دانه، وزن هزار دانه، تعداد دانه در بلال، غلظت روی، غلظت آهن و میزان پروتئین دانه معنی‌دار بود. در شرایط تنش خشکی عملکرد دانه و جذب عناصرغذایی نظیر آهن، روی و فسفر کاهش یافت اما میزان پروتئین دانه افزایش یافت. بیشترین عملکرد دانه (9580 کیلوگرم در هکتار) مربوط به تیمار آبیاری در حد مطلوب بود. محلول‌پاشی اسیدهیومیک موجب افزایش عملکرد دانه، غلظت روی و آهن دانه شد. با افزایش کمبود آب در خاک تأثیر مثبت کاربرد اسیدهیومیک بر افزایش عملکرد دانه به طور قابل ملاحظه‌ای کاهش یافت. عکس‌العمل عملکرد دانه و درصد پروتئین نسبت به افزایش تراکم بوته مثبت بود. به‌طور کلی نتایج آزمایش نشان‌دهنده این مطلب است که کاربرد 4 لیتر در هکتار اسید هیومیک در تراکم 75 هزار بوته در شرایط رطوبتی مناسب می‌تواند موجب افزایش جذب عناصر، عملکرد دانه و اجزای عملکرد ذرت و و در کل بهبود تولید ذرت شود.

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