ارزیابی تأثیر پوتریسین و براسینواستروئید در القای تحمل به خشکی و تغییر فعالیت‌های فیزیولوژیکی در گیاه ریحان (.Ocimum basilicum L)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ایلام

2 استادیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ایلام

3 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ایلام

چکیده

تنش خشکی یکی از فاکتورهای مهم محیطی در مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشک دنیا است که سبب ایجاد یکسری تغییرات فیزیولوژیکی و متابولیکی در گیاهان می­شود. تنش خشکی موجب تشکیل گونه­ های اکسیژن فعال در کلروپلاست­های گیاهی و همچنین سبب پراکسیداسیون لیپیدهای غشایی و تخریب غشای سلولی می­شود. در این راستا، آزمایشی با هدف بررسی نقش تنظیم‌کننده ­های رشد، پوتریسین و براسینواستروئید بر کنترل تنش اکسیداتیو و تغییرات فیزیولوژیکی در تحمل به کمبود آب در گیاه ریحان به­ صورت اسپلیت‌پلات فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ایلام در سال زراعی 97-1396 اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل تنش خشکی در سه سطح (40، 80 و 120 میلی­متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر کلاس A) به‌عنوان عامل اصلی و محلول­ پاشی پوتریسین در سه سطح (صفر، 0.5 و 2 میلی­ مولار) و محلول­ پاشی براسینواستروئید در سه سطح (صفر، 0.5 و 2 میکرو­مولار) به‌صورت فاکتوریل در کرت­های فرعی اجرا گردید. بنا بر نتایج به‌دست‌آمده در این پژوهش، میزان کلروفیل a و b، فلاونوئید کل و غلظت CO2 زیر روزنه­ ای به‌ترتیب در تیمار کاربرد توأم محلول­ پاشی 2 میلی­ مولار پوتریسین و 2 میکرومولار براسینواستروئید نسبت به تیمار شاهد (عدم محلول­ پاشی پوتریسین و براسینواستروئید) در شرایط عدم تنش خشکی 74.06، 64.07، 45.68 و 19.5 درصد، در تنش متوسط 61.4، 33.9، 3.6 و 10.3 درصد و در تنش خشکی شدید 62.1، 68.6، 33.1 و 15.7 درصد افزایش نشان دادند. سرعت فتوسنتز تحت تنش خشکی کاهش یافت اما تیمار غلظت 0.5 میلی­ مولار پوتریسین و 2 میکرومولار براسینواستروئید نسبت به تیمار شاهد (عدم محلول­ پاشی پوتریسین و براسینواستروئید) در تنش خشکی متوسط و شدید سبب افزایش 76.59 و 83.33 درصدی سرعت فتوسنتز شد. تیمار کاربرد محلول ­پاشی غلظت 2 میلی­ مولار پوتریسین و 0.5 میکرومولار براسینواستروئید سبب کاهش میزان نشت یونی تحت همه سطوح تنش خشکی گردید. میزان درصد اسانس در تیمار (غلظت 2 میلی­مولار پوتریسین و 0.5 میکرومولار براسینواستروئید) در تنش خشکی شدید، تنش خشکی متوسط و عدم تنش خشکی به ترتیب 66.5، 39.5 و 50 درصد نسبت به تیمار شاهد (عدم محلول­پاشی پوتریسین و براسینواستروئید) افزایش یافت. در کل، به نظر می­رسد مصرف غلظت بالای پوتریسین و براسینو­استروئید (غلظت 2 میلی­ مولار پوتریسین و 2 میکرومولار براسینواستروئید) در شرایط تنش خشکی می­تواند شاخص­های فیزیولوژیک گیاه ریحان را بهبود بخشد.

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