مطالعه کاربرد اسید سالیسیلیک بر پاسخ‌های فیزیولوژیکی گیاه دارویی سیاهدانه (.Nigella sativa L) تحت شرایط آبیاری مختلف

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد کشاورزی اکولوژیک، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه گنبدکاووس

2 دکتری اکولوژی گیاهان زراعی، استادیار گروه تولیدات گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه گنبدکاووس

3 دکتری خاک‌شناسی- گرایش شیمی و حاصلخیزی خاک و تغذیه گیاه، استادیار گروه تولیدات گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه گنبدکاووس

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر محلول‌پاشی و پیش‌تیمار با اسید سالیسیلیک بر برخی از صفات فیزیولوژیک و عملکرد گیاه دارویی سیاهدانه (Nigella sativa L.) تحت شرایط رژیم‌های مختلف آبیاری، آزمایشی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی گنبد کاووس در زمستان و بهار سال 97-1396 اجرا شد. آزمایش به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. سطوح مختلف آبیاری در چهار سطح شامل: عدم آبیاری (دیم)، یک‌بار آبیاری در مرحله گلدهی، یک‌بار آبیاری در مرحله پر شدن دانه و انجام دو بار آبیاری به‌‌ترتیب در زمان گلدهی و پر شدن دانه و عامل اسید سالیسیلیک در سه سطح شامل: عدم مصرف اسید سالیسیلیک (شاهد)، پیش‌تیمار بذر با اسید سالیسیلیک و محلول‌پاشی اسید سالیسیلیک به‌میزان 0.5 میلی‌مولار در لیتر در نظر گرفته شد. پس از اعمال تیمارها نمونه‌برداری‌های لازم از گیاه به‌عمل آمد و صفاتی از قبیل کلروفیلa ، کلروفیلb ، کلروفیل کل، کارتنوئید، نشت الکترولیت، پرولین، قندهای محلول و در نهایت عملکرد دانه در گیاه ارزیابی شدند. نتایج نشان داد که اثرات ساده آبیاری و اسید سالیسیلیک و اثرات متقابل آن‌ها بر کلیه صفات مورد مطالعه معنی‌دار بود. نتایج مقایسه میانگین اثرات متقابل نشان داد، کاربرد محلول‌پاشی اسید سالیسیلیک باعث افزایش صفاتی مانند رنگیزه‌های فتوسنتزی، پرولین، قندهای محلول و عملکرد دانه در تمام شرایط آبیاری گردید. پیش‌تیمار اسید سالیسیلیک کم‌ترین نشت الکترولیت را به‌خود اختصاص داد. بیش‌ترین عملکرد دانه در تیمار محلول‌پاشی اسید سالیسیلیک به‌میزان 1330 کیلوگرم در هکتار در شرایط دوبار آبیاری و کم‌ترین عملکرد دانه در تیمار عدم مصرف اسید سالیسیلیک به‌میزان 817 کیلوگرم در هکتار در شرایط دیم به‌دست آمد. با توجه به مشاهدات این تحقیق می‌توان نتیجه گرفت که استفاده از اسید سالیسیلیک به‌صورت محلول‌پاشی، راهکاری مناسب به‌منظور افزایش مقاومت گیاه سیاهدانه در برابر تنش کم‌آبی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


Arazmju, A., Heydari, M., Ganbari, A., 2009. Effect of drought stress and three types of fertilizers on flower yield, physiological parameters and nutrient uptake in chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 25(4), 428- 494. ]In Persian with English Summary .[
Babaee, K., Amini Dehaghi, M., Modares Sanavi, S.A.M., Jabbari, R., 2010. Water deficit effect on morphology, prolin content and thymol percentage of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 26(2), 239-251. ]In Persian with English Summary .[
Bajii, M., Lutts, S., Kinet, J., 2001. Water deficit effect on solute contribution to osmotic adjustment as a function of leaf ageing in three wheat cultivars performing differently in arid conditions. Plant Science. 160, 669-681.
Baljani, R., Shekari, F., 2012. The effect of phenic acid with salicylic acid on growth and functional indices in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) under drought conditions of the end of season. Journal of Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production. 22, 103-87. [In Persian with English Summary].
Bates, L.S., Waldern, R.P., Teare, I.D., 1973. Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant and Soil. 39 (1), 205-207.
Bayan, M., Amini, F., Askari, M., 2014. Effect of salicylic acid on organic osmolites accumulation and antioxidant activity of nitraria shoberi under drought stress conditions. Journal of Plant Production. 20(4), 177- 188. [In Persian with English Summary].
Ben Hamed, K., Castagna, A., Salem, E., Ranieri, A., Abdelly, C., 2007. Sea fennel (Crithmum maritimum L.) under salinity conditions: a comparison of leaf and root antioxidant responses. Plant Growth Regulation. 53, 185- 194.
Bouyoucos, G. J., 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analyses of soils. Agronomy Journal. 54, 464-465.
Bremner, J.M., Mulvaney, C.S., 1982. Nitrogen-total. In: Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R. (eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. 2nd ed. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, USA. pp. 595- 624.
Dolatmand Shahri, N., Hagh Shenas, M., 2017. Effect of different amounts of soil moisture in different salicylic acid levels on enzymes activity and morphophysiological characteristics of alfalfa. Crop Physiology Journal. 9 (33), 99-117. ]In Persian with English Summary].
El-Tayeb, M.A., 2005. Response of barley gains to the interactive effect of salinity and salicylic acid. Plant Growth Regulation. 45, 215-225.
Esfini Farahani, M., Paknejad, F., Bakhtiari Moghadam, M., Alavi, S., Hasibi, A.R., 2012. Effect of different application methods and rates of salicylic acid on yield and yield components of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.). Journal of Agronomy and Plant Breeding. 8(3), 69-77. ]In Persian with English Summary].
Fahad, S., Hussain, S., Bano, A., Saud, S., Hassan, S., Shan, D., Huang, J., 2015. Potential role of phytohormones and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in abiotic stresses: consequences for changing environment. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International. 22(7), 4907-4921.  
Farahbakhsh, H., Pasandi Pour, A., 2017. Physiological response of henna, medicinal-industrial plant (Lowsonia inermis L.), to application of salicylic acid under drought stress. Journal of Plant Process and Function. 19(6), 234-245. ]In Persian with English Summary].
Farzaneh, M., Ghanbari, M., Eftekharian, A.R., Javanmardi, S.H., 2013. The effect of salicylic acid foliar application on osmotic and photosynthetic pigmentation of Antarctica (Solanum melongena L.) under Cold Stress. Iranian Journal of Plant Ecophysiology. 8, 83-75. ]In Persian with English Summary].
Forouzandeh, M., Mohkami, Z., Fazelinasab, B., 2018. Evaluation of Biotic Elicitors Foliar Application on Functional Changes, Physiological and Biochemical Parameters of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). Journal of Plant Production. 25(4), 49- 65. [In Persian with English Summary].
Ghoulam, CF., Ahmed, F., Khalid, F., 2001. Effects of salt stress on growth, inorganic ions and proline accumulation in relation to osmotic adjustment in five sugar beet cultivars. Environmental and Experiment Botany. 47, 139-150.
Habibi, G., Sadeghi Pour, Z., Hajiboland, R., 2015. Effect of salicylic acid on tobacco (Nicotiana rustica) plant under drought conditions. Iranian Journal of Plant Biology. 25, 17-28. [In Persian with English Summary].
Haluschak, P., 2006. Laboratory methods of soil analysis. Canada-Manitoba Soil Survey.133p.
Khan, M.I., Fatma, M., Per, T.S., Anjum, N.A., Khan, N.A., 2015. Salicylic acid-induced abiotic stress tolerance and underlying mechanisms in plants. Journal of Plant science. 6, 1-17.        
Khan, W., Prithiviraj, B., Smith, D.L., 2003. Photosynthetic response of corn and soybean to foliar application of salicylates. Journal of Plant Physiology. 160, 485-492.
Khodary, S.E.A., 2004. Effect of salicylic acid on the growth, photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism in salt stressed maize plants. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 6(1), 5-8.  
Khoshbin, S., 2009. One hundred miraculous plants. Publishing House New World, 424p. [In Persian].
Kochert, G., 1987. Carbohydrate determination by the phenol sulfuric acid method. In: Hellebust, J.A., Craigie, J.S. (eds.), Handbook of Phycological Methods: Physiological and Biochemical Methods. Cambridge University Press, London. Pp. 95–97.
Kuznetsov, W., Shevyankova, N.L., 1997. Stress responses of tobacco cells to high temperature and salinity. Proline accumulation and phosphorylation of polypeptides. Physiologia Plantarum. 100, 320-326.
Lichtenthaler, H.K., 1987. Chlorophylls and carotenoids: pigments of photosynthetic bio membranes. Methods in Enzymology. 148, 350–382.
Mafakheri, A., Siosemardeh, A., Bahramnejad, B., Struik, P.C., Sohrabi, Y., 2011. Effect of drought stress on yield, proline and chlorophyll contents in three chickpea cultivars. Australian Journal of Crop Science 4(8), 580–585. [In Persian with English Summary].
Maiti, R.K., Moreno-Limon, S., Wesche-Ebeling, P., 2000. Responses of some crops to various abiotic stress factors and its physiological and biochemical basis of resistances. Agriculture Review. 21, 155-167.
Maria, E.B., Jose, D.A., Maria, C.B., Francisco, P.A., 2000. Carbon partitioning and sucrose metabolism in tomato plants growing under salinity. Physiologia Plantarum. 110, 503-511.
Metwally, A., Finkemeier, I., Georgi, M., Dietz, K.J., 2003. Salicylic acid alleviates the cadmium toxicity in barley seedlings. Plant Physiology. 132, 272- 281.
Mittler, R., 2002. Oxidative stress, antioxidants and stress tolerance. Trends in Plant Science. 7, 405-410.
Molnar, I., Gaspar, L., Sarvari, E., Dulai, S., Haffman, B., Molnar, L.M., Galiba, G., 2004. Physiological and morphological response to water stress in Aegilops biuncialis and Triticum aestivum genotype with differing tolerance to drought. Functional Plant Biology. 31, 1149-1159.
Moradi Marjaneh, A., Goldani, M., 2011. Evaluation of different salicylic acid levels on some growth Parameters of Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) under low irrigation conditions. Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences. 4(1), 33- 45. ]In Persian with English Summary].
Munne-Bosch, S., Penuelas, J., 2003. Photoand antioxidant protection during summer leaf senescence in Pistscia lentiscus L. grown under Mediterranean Field Conditions. Aquatic Botany. 92, 385-391.
 Nelson, R.E., 1982. Carbonate and Gypsum. In: Page, A.L. (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. American Society of Agronomy, Inc. Madison, Wisconsin. USA. 45-75.  
Nemeth, M., Janda, T., Hovarth, E., Paldi, E., Szali, G., 2002. Exogenous salicylic acid increases polyamine content but may decrease drought tolerance in maize. Plant Science. 162, 569-574.
Noreen, S., Fatima, K., Athar, H.U.R., Ahmad, S., Hussain, K., 2017. Enhancement of physio-biochemical parameters of wheat through exogenous application of salicylic acid under drought stress. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences. 2, 153–163.
Pak Mehr, A., 2009. Priming effect of salicylic acid on some morphological and physiological properties of cowpea under water stress. MSc thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Zanjan University, Iran. [In Persian].
Pasandi Pour, A., Farahbakhsh, H., Safari, M., kramat, B., 2013. The effect of salicylic acid on some physiological reactions of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) under salinity stress. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology. 2(26), 215-228. ]In Persian with English Summary].
Pourakbar, L., Abedzadeh., M., 2015. Investigating the effects of magnetic field and salicylic acid on Melissa officinalis (Lamiaceae) under UV-B stress. Nova Biologica Reperta. 1(2), 40-56. [In Persian with English Summary].
Ramak, M., Khavari Nejad, R., Hidari Sharifabad, H., Rafiee, M., Khademi, K., 2014. The effect of water stress on dry weight and photosynthetic pigments in two sainfoin species. Iranian Journal of Rangelands Forests Plant Breeding and Genetic Research. 14(2), 91-80. [In Persian with English Summary].
Rezapor, A.R., Heidari, M., Galavi, M., Ramrodi, M., 2011. Effect of water stress and different amounts of sulfur fertilizer on grian yield, grain yield components and osmotic adjustment in Nigella sativa L. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 27(3), 384-396. [In Persian with English Summary].
Sadeghi Pour, A., 2011. Study of biochemical and physiological reactions of beans affected by water stress and treatment with salicylic acid. Master thesis. Islamic Azad University, Rey campus, Iran. [In Persian].
Sanchez, F.J., Manzanares, M., de Andres, E.F., Tenorio, J.L., Ayerbe, L., 1998. Turgor maintenance, osmotic adjustment and soluble sugar and proline accumulation in 49 pea cultivars in response to water stress. Field Crops Research. 59, 225–235.
  Sartip, H., Sirousmehr, A. R., 2018. Evaluation of salicylic acid effects on growth, yield and some biochemical characteristics of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) under three irrigation regimes. Environmental Stresses in Crop Science. 10(4), 547-558. ]In Persian with English Summary].
Shi, Q., Zhu, Z., 2008. Effects of exogenous salicylic acid on manganese toxicity, element contents and antioxidative system in cucumber. Environment Experimental Botany. 63, 317-326.
Shoqian, M., Roozbehani, A., 2017. The effect of salicylic acid foliar application on morphological traits, yield and yield components of red beans under drought tension conditions. Crop Physiology Journal. Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz. 9(34), 131-147. [In Persian].
Singh, B., Usha, K., 2003. Salicylic acid induced physiological and biochemical changes in wheat seedlings under water stress. Plant Growth Regulation. 39, 137–141.
Sparks, D.L., Page, A., Helmke, P., Loeppert, R., Soltanpour, P., Tabatabai, M., Johnston, C.T., Sumner, M.E., 1996. Methods of soil analysis. Published by: Soil Science Society of America, Inc. American Society of Agronomy, Inc.  Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Sultana, N., Ikeda, T., Itoh, R., 1999. Effect of NaCl salinity on photosynthesis and dry matter accumulation in developing rice grains. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 42(3), 211-220.
Walkley, A., Black, I.A., 1934. An examination of the degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science. 37, 29-38.
Wen, P.F., Chen, JY., Wan, SB., Kong, WF., Zhang, P, Wang, W., Zhan, J., Pan, QH, Hung, WD., 2005. Salicylic acid activates phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in grape berry in response to high temperature stress.  Plant Growth Regulation. 55(1), 1-10.
Yazdanpanah, S., Abasi, F., Baghzadeh, A., 2010. Effect of salicylic acid and ascorbic acid on proline, sugar and protein content in (Satureja hortensis L.) under aridity stress. Proceeding of The First National Conference of Environmental Stress in Agricultural Science. The University of Birjand. 28-29. [In Persian].
Yoshiba, Y., Yamada, M., Morishita, H., Uran, K., Shiozaki, N., Yamaguchi, K., Shinozaki, K., 2005. Effects of free proline accumulation in petunias under drought stress. Experimental Botany. 56(417), 1975-1986.