اثر تاریخ کاشت و محلول‌پاشی سالیسیلیک اسید بر فنولوژی و برخی ویژگی‏های کمی و کیفی کینوآ تحت شرایط تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد رشته مهندسی زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

2 دانشیار گروه مهندسی زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

3 استادیار گروه مهندسی تولیدات گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی بردسیر، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

چکیده

این آزمایش با هدف بررسی مناسب‏ترین تاریخ کاشت و میزان مقاومت گیاه به تنش خشکی به­ صورت کرت­های دو بار خردشده بر پایه طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در دانشکده کشاورزی بردسیر، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان در سال زراعی 97-1396 اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل تاریخ کاشت (15 فروردین، 15 اردیبهشت و 15 خرداد) به ­عنوان عامل اصلی، سطوح مختلف آبیاری (90، 60 و 30 درصد ظرفیت زراعی) به­ عنوان عامل فرعی و محلول‌پاشی (سالیسیلیک اسید با غلظت 1 میلی­ مولار و آب به­ عنوان شاهد) به­ عنوان فاکتور فرعی-فرعی بودند. نتایج نشان داد که تأخیر در کاشت باعث کوتاه شدن طول دوره رشد گیاه شد. تنش خشکی دوره رشد و درجه روز رشد دریافتی گیاه را کاهش داد. طول ریشه در تاریخ کاشت اردیبهشت (31.81 سانتی‏متر) حدود 20 و 41 درصد بالاتر از تاریخ کاشت فروردین و خرداد بود. در دو تاریخ کاشت فروردین (28.27 سانتی‏متر) و اردیبهشت (35.92 سانتی‏متر)، بیشترین طول ریشه در سطح آبیاری 60 درصد ظرفیت زراعی ولی در تاریخ کاشت خرداد (21.27 سانتی‏متر) در سطح عدم تنش به دست آمد. به­طور میانگین عملکرد دانه در تاریخ کاشت اردیبهشت (653.91 کیلوگرم در هکتار) حدود 12 درصد بیشتر از فروردین و 30 درصد بیشتر از خرداد بود. کاهش آب مصرفی تا 60 درصد ظرفیت زراعی تأثیر معنی­داری بر عملکرد دانه نداشت، ولی میزان این شاخص در 30 درصد ظرفیت زراعی به‏ترتیب حدود 13 و 10 درصد کمتر از دو سطح اول بود. محلول‌پاشی سالیسیلیک اسید تنها در شرایط تنش شدید باعث افزایش معنی­دار عملکرد دانه نسبت به محلول‌پاشی آب شد. رابطه درصد روغن دانه با عملکرد دانه مثبت (0.82= r) و رابطه درصد پروتئین با عملکرد دانه منفی (0.78-=r) بود. کارایی مصرف آب در تاریخ کاشت اردیبهشت به ترتیب حدود 17 و 15 درصد بیشتر از تاریخ کاشت فروردین و خرداد بود. با کاهش میزان آب مصرفی، کارایی مصرف آب به‌طور معنی‏ داری افزایش یافت. به‏طورکلی، نتایج نشان داد که کشت در اردیبهشت‌ماه مناسب‏ترین تاریخ کاشت گیاه کینوآ برای منطقه بردسیر است. همچنین، این گیاه مقاومت خوبی به تنش خشکی داشته و استفاده از سالیسیلیک اسید نیز می‏تواند در کاهش اثرات منفی تنش خشکی بر رشد و نمو این گیاه مؤثر باشد.

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