بررسی اثر تنش خشکی بر عملکرد دانه سه ژنوتیپ ارزن معمولی (Panicum miliaceum L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد زراعت دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان.

2 استادیار بخش زراعت دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان.

چکیده

کمبود آب گرایش به سمت کاشت ژنوتیپ­های مقاوم به خشکی را افزایش داده است. در نواحی خشک شبیه بیشتر مناطق ایران، اغلب اکوتیپ­ها و گونه­های محلی مقاومت بیشتری در برابر خشکی از خود نشان می­دهند. این تحقیق به‌صورت اسپلیت پلات و در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی که در آن تنش خشکی (50، 75 و 100 درصد ظرفیت زراعی) به‌عنوان کرت اصلی و ژنوتیپ­ (پیشاهنگ، رابر و گلباف) به‌عنوان کرت فرعی در نظر گرفته‌شده بود، اجرا گردید. نتایج نشان داد که صفات پتانسیل آب برگ، قندهای احیاء، عملکرد بیولوژیک و عملکرد دانه در سطح احتمال یک درصد تحت تاثیر تیمار تنش خشکی قرار گرفتند. اثر ساده ژنوتیپ نیز برای صفات مذکور و همچنین محتوای رنگیزه­های فتوسنتزی معنی­دار گردید. بر طبق نتایج تجزیه واریانس اثر متقابل ژنوتیپ×تنش تنها برای صفات نشت یونی و عملکرد بیولوژیک معنی­دار شد. نتایج مقایسه میانگین نشان داد که تنش خشکی به‌طور معنی‌داری عملکرد بیولوژیک، محتوی نسبی آب برگ و عملکرد دانه را کاهش داد این در حالی بود که نشت یونی و محتوای قندهای احیاء به‌طور معنی­داری افزایش یافتند. بیشترین عملکرد بیولوژیک هم در شرایط نرمال و هم تنش مر بوط به رقم پیشاهنگ بود. همبستگی ساده بین صفات نشان داد که عملکرد بیولوژیک، محتوی نسبی آب برگ و قندهای احیاء بیشترین تأثیر را بر عملکرد دانه داشته­ اند. به‌طورکلی نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد کهاکوتیپ گلباف بالاترین عملکرد دانه را در مقایسه با ژنوتیپ­های پیشاهنگ و رابر در شرایط تنش خشکی داشت.

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