بررسی تأثیر تنش کم‌آبی و مقادیر مختلف کود نیتروژن بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و کارآیی مصرف آب سیب‌زمینی (Solanum tuberosum L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت دانشگاه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی رامین خوزستان

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی رامین خوزستان

3 استاد گروه زراعت دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی رامین خوزستان

4 استادیار دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه جیرفت

5 استادیار پژوهش مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان چهارمحال و بختیاری

6 استادیار پژوهش مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان خوزستان

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر سطوح مختلف تنش کم‌آبی و کود نیتروژن بر عملکرد و سایر صفات زراعی سیب‌زمینی رقم بورن، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 92-1391 با سه سطح تنش کم‌آبی S1، S2 و S3 (به ترتیب تأمین 100، 75 و 50 درصد نیاز آبی سیب‌زمینی پس از سبز شدن تا پایان دوره رشد) به‌عنوان فاکتورهای اصلی و 4 تیمار کود نیتروژن N1، N2، N3 و N4 (به ترتیب تأمین 100، 66، 33 و صفر درصد نیاز کودی) به‌عنوان فاکتورهای فرعی به‌صورت کرت‌های خردشده، در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان چهارمحال و بختیاری به اجرا درآمد. در این آزمایش، تنش کم‌آبی درصد ماده خشک غده‌ها را افزایش داد، اما مقادیر نیتروژن روند مشخصی در تغییرات این صفت ایجاد نکرد. با اعمال تنش خشکی و کاهش مصرف کود نیتروژن تعداد غده در بوته و وزن غده‌ها کاهش یافت. عملکرد غده قابل‌فروش در تیمار‌های S1 و S2 اختلاف معنی‌دار نداشت اما تنش آبی (S3) منجر به افت شدید عملکرد شد. تیمارهای N1، N2 و N3 باعث افزایش عملکرد غده قابل‌فروش به ترتیب به میزان 30، 36 و 11 درصد نسبت به شاهد (N4) شدند. به علت کاهش عملکرد غده در تیمارهای S2 و S3 در بالاترین سطح مصرف نیتروژن (N1)، اثر متقابل تنش خشکی و نیتروژن بر عملکرد غده، معنی‌دار شد. تیمار N2 در شرایط تنش شدید کم‌آبی و تنش متوسط دارای بالاترین و تیمار N4 در شرایط بدون تنش دارای کمترین کارآیی مصرف آب بود. بر اساس تجزیه رگرسیون مرحله‌ای، صفت میانگین وزن غده قابل‌فروش به‌تنهایی بیشتر تغییرات عملکرد غده در واحد سطح را توجیه کرد.

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