Publication Ethics

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Journal of Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences by University of Birjand is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
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Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement for journal of Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences


Ethic statements of Journal of Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences (ESCS) are based on COPE's (Committee on Publication Ethics) best practice guidelines for journal editors. ESCS Guest Editors, Reviewers and Authors are encouraged to study these guidelines and address any questions or concerns to the ESCS Editor-in-Chief, Prof. Kafi, at

Publication of an article in Environmental stresses in Crop Sciences journal, as a peer-reviewed journal, is bonded to many ethics. First of all the article must be original & it should be direct work of the authors. Peer-reviewed articles should be supported by scientific method. It should be noted that ethics of publication must be followed by all parties including the author, the journal editor, the peer reviewer and finally the publisher. 


Credit and responsibility of contents of papers belong to authors. Criteria for authorship includes print and electronic publications of words, data, and images. Therefore, the responsibility of published work is on the shoulders of authors. Therefore, authors ought to understand their role in taking responsibility and being accountable for what is published. In this direction, Editors should develop and implement a contributor-ship policy, as well as a policy that identifies who is responsible for the integrity of the work as a whole. However, it should be pointed out that quantity and quality of contribution is responsibility of both Editor as well as all authors. Once the manuscript is accepted for publication, the corresponding author should send a request through the official email of journal about any change of authorship or to rearrange the author names of the accepted manuscript. Everyone who has made contributions to the article could be considered as an author. In many cases such as translating text, providing laboratory facilities and funds or administrative backups, should not be considered as authors and these may be thanked in acknowledgement section of the manuscript. One author should take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole. Often this is the corresponding author, the one who sends in the manuscript and receives reviews, but other authors can have this role. All authors should approve the final version of the manuscript.  It is preferable that all authors be familiar with all aspects of the work. However, modern research is often done in teams with complementary expertise so that every author may not be equally familiar with all aspects of the work. Therefore, some authors’ contributions may be limited to specific aspects of the work as a whole.


Editors should not limit the number of authors. There are ample reasons for multiple authors in some kinds of research.. If Editor of "ESCS" believe that the number of authors is too large when compared with the scope of the work, he/she can ask for a detailed description of each author’s contributions to the work. If some do not meet criteria for authorship, Editors can ask for removal of some names as a condition of publication. The authors themselves should decide the order in which authors are listed in an article. No one else knows "as good as they" do their respective contributions and the agreements they have made among themselves. Many different criteria are used to decide order of authorship. Among these are relative contributions to the work and, in situations where all authors have contributed equally, alphabetical or random order. Readers cannot know, and should not assume, the meaning of order of authorship unless the approach to assigning order has been described by the authors. Authors may want to include with their manuscript a description of how order was decided. If so, editors should welcome this information and publish it with the manuscript. Disputes about authorship are best settled at the local level, before journal begins the processes of reviews the manuscript. However, at their discretion editors may become involved in resolving authorship disputes. Changes in authorship at any stage of manuscript review, revision, or acceptance should be accompanied by a written request and explanation from all of the original authors.


In order to disseminate the authors’ research work, the publishers need publishing rights. For open access journals such as "ESCS" where articles are freely accessible by anyone, the publisher uses an exclusive licensing agreement in which authors retain copyright in their manuscript. ESCS provides access to archived material through the journal archives.  All articles published open access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by Creative Commons user license called "Creative Common Attribution-NonCommercial" (Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.).


Authors are requested to evident whether impending conflicts do or do not exist through their note to the editor. The credibility of published articles depend in part on how clearly conflicts of interest are handled during various processes of article publishing. Financial relationships are the most easily identifiable conflicts of interest and can adversely affect the credibility of the journal, the authors, and ethics of science itself. Conflicts may also raise for other reasons (personal relationships, academic competition, and intellectual beliefs, etc.). All authors should strictly follow the journals’ policies on conflict of interest.  Not only authors but also peer reviewers, editor, and editorial board members of journals must consider their conflicts of interest when carrying out their roles in the process of article review and publication. They should disclose any relationships that could be considered as potential conflicts of interest.

  1. Authors are responsible for disclosing all financial and personal relationships that might bias their work.
  2. Reviewers should disclose to Editor any conflicts of interest that may bias their judgement about manuscript before they begin to review the manuscript.  Reviewers should somehow recuse themselves from reviewing specific manuscripts if the potential for bias exists. Reviewers must not use any part of manuscript before its publication for any possible reason.
  3. Editor as the final person for making decision as well as staff members of "ESCS" who may be somehow involved in the processes of decision should rescue themselves if they have conflicts of interest or relationships that pose potential conflicts related to articles. Editor and editorial staff members should not use information given in manuscripts for any private gain. Guest editors should follow these same procedures.

Reporting Conflicts of Interest

Articles should be published with statements (such as the ESCS conflict of interest form), declaring:

  1. Authors’ conflicts of interest; and
  2. Sources of financial and other supports for their research (including sponsor names along with explanations of the role of those sources). Authors should be clear about collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; writing of the report; and
  3. Authors should clearly state about the data sources and accessibility to these data that they might have used in the manuscript. 

If Editor ask the authors (for any reason) to show evident of having access to data used in the manuscript; then authors should provide a letter or statement from sponsor of data/finance to convince Editor. 


Ethical policy of ESCS is presently based on the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines. Readers, authors, reviewers and editors should follow these ethical policies once working with ESCS . For further information on this matter please visit

Duties and Responsibilities of Publishers


  1. ESCS is committing to ensure that editorial decisions on manuscript submissions are the final.
  2. ESCS is promising to ensure that the decision on manuscript submissions is only made based on professional judgment and will not be affected by any commercial interests.
  3. ESCS is committing to maintain the integrity of academic and research records.
  4. ESCS is monitoring the ethics by Editor-in-Chief, Associate Editors, Editorial Board Members, Reviewers, Authors, and Readers.
  5. ESCS is always checking the plagiarism and fraudulent data issues involving in the submitted manuscript.
  6. ESCS is always willing to publish corrections, clarifications and retractions involving its publications as and when needed.

Duties and Responsibilities of Editors


  1. The Editors of the ESCS journal should have the full authority to reject/accept a manuscript.
  2. The Editors of the ESCS journal should maintain the confidentiality of submitted manuscripts under review or until they are published.
  3. The Editor-in-Chief should take a decision on submitted manuscripts, whether to be published or not with other editors and reviewers
  4. The Editors of the ESCS journal should preserve the anonymity of reviewers.
  5. The Editors of the ESCS journal should disclose and try to avoid any conflict of interest.
  6. The Editors of the ESCS journal should maintain academic integrity and strive to meet the needs of readers and authors.
  7. The Editors of the ESCS journal should be willing to investigate plagiarism and fraudulent data issues and willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions, and apologies when needed.
  8. The Editors of the ESCS journal should have the limit themselves only to the intellectual content.
  9. The Editors of the ESCS journal must not disclose any information about submitted manuscripts to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and the publisher, as appropriate.
  10. Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted paper will not be used by the editor or the members of the editorial board for their own research purposes without the author's explicit written consent.

Duties and Responsibilities of Reviewers


  1. The Reviewers of the ESCS journal should assist the Editors in taking the decision for publishing the submitted manuscripts.
  2. The Reviewers should maintain the confidentiality of manuscripts, which they are invited to review.
  3. The Reviewers should provide comments in time that will help editors to make decision on the submitted manuscript to be published or not.
  4. The Reviewers are bound to treat the manuscript received for peer reviewing as confidential, and must not use the information obtained through peer review for personal advantage. 
  5. The Reviewers comments against each invited manuscript should be technical, professional and objective.
  6. The Reviewers should not review the manuscripts in which they have found conflicts of interest with any of the authors, companies, or institutions.
  7. The Reviewers should disclose and try to avoid any conflict of interest.

Duties and Responsibilities of Authors


  1. Manuscripts must be submitted only in Persian, with an extended abstract in English, and should be written according to sound grammar and proper terminology.
  2. Manuscripts must be submitted with the understanding that they have not been published elsewhere (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis) and are not currently under consideration by another journal published by or any other publisher.
  3. The submitting (corresponding) author is responsible for ensuring that the manuscript article's publication has been approved by all the other coauthors.
  4. In order to sustain the peer review system, authors have an obligation to participate in peer review process to evaluate manuscripts from others. 
  5. It is also the authors' responsibility to ensure that the manuscripts emanating from a particular institution are submitted with the approval of the necessary institution.
  6. It is a condition for submission of a manuscript that the authors permit editing of the paper for readability.
  7. Authors are requested to clearly identify who provided financial support for the conduct of research and/or preparation of the manuscript and briefly describe the role of the funder/sponsor in any part of the work.
  8. A copy right release and conflict of interest disclosure form must be signed by the corresponding author in case of multiple authorships, prior to the acceptation of the manuscript, by all authors, for publication to be legally responsible towards the Journal ethics and privacy policy.
  9. Under open access license, authors retain ownership of the copyright for their content, but allow anyone to download, reuse, reprint, modify, distribute, and/or copy the content as long as the original authors and source are cited properly.
  10. All authors have agreed to allow the corresponding author to serve as the primary correspondent with the editorial office, to review the edited manuscript and proof.
  11. When author(s) discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal editor or publisher to retract or correct the manuscript. 
  12. All authors must know that that the submitted manuscripts under review or published with ESCS journal are subject to screening using Plagiarism Prevention Software. Plagiarism is a serious violation of publication ethics. 
  13. All authors must ensure that all authors have read the submission final checklist before being submitted to the ESCS journal.  For more details kindly see the link (In Persian):

Principles of Transparency


  1. Peer review process:  ESCS journal is a double blind peer reviewed electronic and print quarterly publication concerned with all aspects of environmental (abiotic) stresses and crops performances. This process, as well as any policies related to the journal’s peer review procedures, is clearly described on the journal’s Web site (Persian:; English:
  2. Governing Body: ESCS journal has very strong editorial board, whose members are recognized experts in the subject areas included within the journal’s scope. The full names and affiliations of the journal’s editors is provided on the journal’s Web site (
  3. Contact information: Journal is provided the contact information for the editorial office of ESCS (
  4. Author fees / Access: The Journal database is fully open access and full text of published articles are available for everyone who can get access to the Journal website free of cost. Besides, the authors never pay any charges for submission, article processing and publication.
  5. Copyright: Journals made clear the type of copyright under which authors work will be published.  Upon acceptance of manuscript, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement'.
  6. Identification of and dealing with allegations of research misconduct: Editor-in-Chief takes reasonable steps to identify and prevent the publication of papers where research misconduct has occurred, including plagiarism, citation manipulation, and data falsification/fabrication, among others.
  7. Web site: A journal’s Web site ( contains that care has been taken to ensure high ethical and professional standards.
  8. Name of journal: The Journal name (Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences) has unique and not be one that is easily confused with another journal
  9. Conflicts of interest: Authors are requested to evident whether impending conflicts do or do not exist while submitting their articles to ESCS through letter to Editor. 
  10. Publishing schedule: The periodicity at which a journal publishes is clearly indicated (4 issues per year)  (
  11. Archiving: The archives of all published issues is accessible at journal official site ( and

Violation of Publication Ethics


  1. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is intentionally using someone else’s ideas or other original material as if they are one's own. Copying even one sentence from someone else’s manuscript, or even one of your own that has previously been published, without proper citation is considered by ESCS journal as plagiarism. All manuscripts under review or published with ESCS are subject to screening using plagiarism prevention software, provided by Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology (IranDoc). Thus, plagiarism is a serious violation of publication ethics. The development of Tik is a service that helps editors to verify the originality of papers.
  2. Data Fabrication and Falsification: Data fabrication and falsification means the researcher did not really carry out the study, but made up data or results and had recorded or reported the fabricated information. Data falsification means the researcher did the experiment, but manipulated, changed, or omitted data or results from the research findings.
  3. Simultaneous Submission: Simultaneous submission occurs when a manuscript (or substantial sections from a manuscript) is submitted to a journal when it is already under consideration by another journal.
  4. Duplicate Publication: Duplicate publication occurs when two or more papers, without full cross referencing, share essentially the same hypotheses, data, discussion points, and conclusions.
  5. Redundant Publications: Redundant publications involve the inappropriate division of study outcomes into several articles, most often consequent to the desire to plump academic vitae.
  6. Improper Author Contribution or Attribution: All listed authors must have made a significant scientific contribution to the research in the manuscript and approved all its claims. Don’t forget to list everyone who made a significant scientific contribution, including students and laboratory technicians.
  7. Citation Manipulation: Citation Manipulation is including excessive citations, in the submitted manuscript, that do not contribute to the scholarly content of the article and have been included solely for the purpose of increasing citations to a given author’s work, or to articles published in a particular journal. This leads to misrepresenting the importance of the specific work and journal in which it appears and is thus a form of scientific misconduct.
  8. Sanctions: In the event that there are documented violations of any of the above mentioned policies in any journal, regardless of whether or not the violations occurred in a journal, the following sanctions will be applied: (i) Immediate rejection of the infringing manuscript, (ii)Immediate rejection of every other manuscript submitted to any journal published by any of the authors of the infringing manuscript, (iii) Prohibition will be imposed for a minimum of 36 months against all of the authors for any new submissions to any journal, either individually or in combination with other authors of the infringing manuscript, and (iv) Prohibition against all of the authors from serving on the Editorial Board of any journal.

Handling Cases of Misconduct


Once ESCS journal confirms a violation against ESCS’s publication ethics, ESCS addresses ethical concerns diligently following an issue-specific standard practice as summarized below.

  1. The first action of the journal Editor is to inform the Editorial Office of ESCS by supplying copies of the relevant material and a draft letter to the corresponding author asking for an explanation in a nonjudgmental manner.
  2. If the author’s explanation is unacceptable and it seems that serious unethical conduct has taken place, the matter is referred to the Publication Committee via Editorial Office.  After deliberation, the Committee will decide whether the case is sufficiently serious to warrant a ban on future submissions. 
  3. If the infraction is less severe, the Editor, upon the advice of the Publication Committee, sends the author a letter of reprimand and reminds the author of ESCS publication policies; if the manuscript has been published, the Editor may request the author to publish an apology in the journal to correct the record.
  4. Notification will be sent to corresponding author and any work by the author responsible for the violation or any work these persons coauthored that is under review by ESCS journal will be rejected immediately.
  5. The authors are prohibited from serving on ESCS editorial board and serving as a reviewer for ESCS Journal. ESCS reserves the right to take more actions.
  6. In extreme cases, notifications will be sent to the affiliations of the authors and the authors are prohibited from submitting their work to ESCS for 5 years.
  7. In serious cases of fraud that result in retraction of the article, a retraction notice will be published in the journal and will be linked to the article in the online version. The online version will also be marked “retracted” with the retraction date.