Evaluating the drought tolerance of rice genotypes at the seedling stage

Document Type : Original Article


1 MSc. Graduate of Plant Breeding, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran

2 Associate Prof. Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran

3 Associate Prof. Gonbad-e-Kavous University, Gonbad-e-Kavous, Iran


Rice is one of the most important agricultural products in Iran and all over the world, drought stress is a significant limiting factor in producing this crop. Breeding for drought tolerance could be an effective method to improve yield and its stability in drought regions. In order to determine the drought tolerance, a factorial experiment based on RCBD with three replications was conducted under hydroponic culture conditions at the plant breeding laboratory of Gonbad-e-Kavous University in 2012. Treatments were 22 rice genotypes and drought stress in 2 levels (control and -5Bar). The studied traits included the root dimension, root weight, root number, root length, stem weight, stem length, genotypic code (the relative tolerance of genotypes to drought stress) and biomass. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences (p< 0.01) amongst genotypes in all studied traits, which implies the existence of genetic diversity among genotypes. In cluster analysis based on seedlings traits, genotypes which were in a group with the tolerant cultivar Bala were named as the tolerant group and genotypes that were classified in a group with semi-sensitive Azucena were called as the sensitive group. Results of stepwise regression analysis for biomass as dependent variable and other traits as independent variables showed that stem and root weight had the greatest effect (R2=0.61) on the biomass under drought conditions, respectively. The results showed that there was genetic diversity for studied traits amongst the genotypes and they can be used to improve drought tolerance in high-yielding rice varieties.


Bernier, J., Kumar, A., Serraj, R., Spaner, D., Atlin, G., 2008. Review: breeding upland rice for drought resistance. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 88, 927-939.
Blum, A., Sinmena, B., Ziv, O., 1980. An evaluation of seed and seedling drought tolerancescreening tests in wheat.Euphytica. 29, 727-736.
Boogard, R., Veneklaas, E., Lambers, H., 1996. The association of biomass allocation withgrowth and water use efficiency of two T.aestivum cultivars. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology. 23, 751-761.
Ccbuslay, G.V., Ito, O., Alejar, A., 2002. Physiological evaluation of responses of rice to water deficit. Plant Science. 263, 815-827.
Copland, L.D., McDonald, M.B., 1995. Seed Science and Technology. Chapman and Hall. New York.
Farahmandfar, A., Poustini, K., Fallah, A., TavakolAfshari, R., Moradi, F., 2009.Effects ofsalt stress on seed germination and seedling growth of some Iranian rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes and cultivars. Iranian Journal of  Field Crop Science. 3(40), 71-94. [In Persian with English Summary].
Fukai, S., Cooper, M., 1995. Development of drought-resistant cultivars using physio-morphological traits in rice. Field Crops Research. 40(2), 67-87.
Iftekharuddaula, K.M., Khaleda, A. Hassan, M.S. Fatema, K., Badshad. A., 2002. Genetic divergence, character association and selection criteria in irrigated rice. Journal of Biological Science. 2, 243-246.
Lanng,N.T., Buu, B.C., 2008. Fine mapping for drought tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Omonrice. 16, 9-15.
Lum, M.S., Hanafi, M.M., Rafii, Y.M., Akmar, A.S.N., 2014. Effect of drought stress on growth proline and antioxidant enzyme activities of upland rice. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences. 24(5), 1487-1493.
Magsudi, Mud, A.A., 2008. Physiological, Morphological and Anatomical Bases of Resistance to Drought Tolerance in Wheat. Kerman University Publication. 220p. [In Persian].
MirdarMansuri, SH., BabaeeanJelodar, N., Bagheri, N., 2012. Evaluation of Iranian ricegenotypes to salinity stress in hydroponic culture using stress tolerance and susceptibility indices. Iranian  Journal of Field Crops Research. 9(4), 694-703. [In Persian with English Summary].
Palta, J.A., Kobata, T., Turner, N.C., Fillery, I.R., 1994. Remobilization of carbon and nitrogenin with as influenced by post-anthesis water deficits. Crop Science. 34, 118-124.
Sabouri, H., Rezai, A.M., Moumeni, A., 2008. Evaluation of salt tolerance in Iranian landraceand improved rice cultivars. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources. 45: 47-63. [In Persian with English Summary].
SAS Institute Inc. 2008. SAS/STAT 9.2 User’s Guide. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.
Sharma, P.K., Dedatta, S.K., Redulla, C.N., 1987. Root growth and yield response of rainfed lowland rice to planting method. Experimental Agricultura. 23, 305-313.
SPSS 20.0 Brief guide. 2007. 233 south Wacker Drive, 11th Floor, Chicago, IL60606-6412Patent No. 7, 023-453.
Srividhya, A., Vemireddy, L.R., Ramanarao, P.V., Sridhar, S., Jayaprada, M., Anuradha, G..Srilakshmi, B., Reddy, H.K., Hariprasad, A.S., Siddiq, E.A., 2011. Molecular mapping of QTLs for drought related traits at seedling stage under PEG induced stress conditions inrice. American Journal of Plant Sciences. 2, 190-201.
Standard Evaluation System for rice. 1996. 4th ed., INGER Genetics Resource Center, IRRI.Manila, Philippines.
Winkel, A., 1989. Breeding for drought tolerance in cereals. Vertage for pflanzenzuchtung. 16, 357- 368.
Yoshida, S., Forno, D.A., Cock, J.H., Gomez, K.A., 1976. Laboratory manual for physiologicalstudies of rice. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Laguna, Phillipines.
Yue, B., Xiong, L., Xue, W., Xing, Y., Kuo, L.,Xu. C., 2005.Genetic analysis for droughtresistance of rice at reproductive stage in field with different types of soil.Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 111, 1127-1136.
Zhang, D., 1998. An improved water use efficiency for winter wheat growth under reducedirrigation. Field Crops Research. 59, 91-98.
Volume 8, Issue 2 - Serial Number 2
March 2016
Pages 205-216
  • Receive Date: 29 October 2013
  • Revise Date: 29 March 2015
  • Accept Date: 30 August 2015
  • First Publish Date: 05 March 2016