اثر سایه اندازی و نیتروژن بر فنولوژی و عملکرد ارزن دم روباهی (.Setaria italica) در رقابت با تاج خروس سفید (.Amaranthus albus L)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته دکتری گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشگاه بیرجند

2 عضو هیئت‌علمی گروه زراعت واصلاح نباتات دانشگاه بیرجند

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی برخی صفات ارزن دم­روباهی در رقابت با تاج­ خروس­ سفید و واکنش آن به محدودیت تشعشع و نیتروژن، دو آزمایش مجزا به‌صورت کرت­های خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در تابستان سال 1394 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند انجام گرفت. تشعشع به‌عنوان عامل اصلی در سه سطح (صفر، 41 و 75 درصد سایه ­دهی)، تراکم تاج­ خروس­ سفید به­ عنوان عامل فرعی در سه سطح (صفر، 12 و 24 بوته در مترمربع) در دو آزمایش مجزا، یکی در شرایط کاربرد 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن خالص و دیگری در شرایط عدم کاربرد نیتروژن بررسی شد. کاربرد نیتروژن باعث افزایش طول مراحل فنولوژیکی شامل تعداد روز تا ظهور پانیکول، تعداد روز تا رسیدگی، دوره پر شدن دانه و نیز عملکرد دانه ارزن دم ­روباهی گردید. 75 درصد سایه­ دهی منجر به کاهش تعداد دانه در پانیکول و عملکرد دانه ارزن دم­ روباهی گردید و درعین‌حال طول مراحل فنولوژیکی را افزایش داد. تأثیر تراکم تاج­ خروس ­سفید نیز بر عملکرد دانه و علوفه ارزن دم ­روباهی و همچنین تعداد روز تا ظهور پانیکول معنی­ دار بود و در بالاترین سطح منجر به کاهش 21 درصدی عملکرد دانه و علوفه در مقایسه با شاهد گردید. نتایج این آزمایش حاکی از افزایش توان رقابتی تاج­ خروس­ سفید با ارزن دم­روباهی در شرایط کاربرد نیتروژن است، چرا که کاهش عملکرد ارزن دم ­روباهی در شرایط عدم مصرف نیتروژن در تیمارهای رقابت خیلی کمتر بود، به‌طوری‌که در شرایط عدم کاربرد نیتروژن و تراکم 24 بوته تاج ­خروس­ سفید، عملکرد ارزن دم ­روباهی حدود 1 درصد در مقایسه با تراکم 12 بوته تاج­ خروس­ سفید کاهش پیدا کرد، درحالی‌که با کاربرد 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن و تراکم 24 بوته تاج­ خروس­ سفید، عملکرد ارزن دم ­روباهی 26 درصد در مقایسه با تراکم 12 بوته تاج­ خروس ­سفید کاهش نشان داد. تحقیق حاضر نشان داد در شرایط وفور علف­ هرز تاج­خروس ­سفید در مزرعه ارزن دم­ روباهی، مصرف نیتروژن موجب خسارت بیشتر این علف­ هرز به ارزن دم­ روباهی می‏گردد.

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