بررسی اثر تنش خشکی بر عملکرد و برخی خصوصیات فیزیولوژیک ارزن دم‌روباهی (.Setaria italica L) در تاریخ های مختلف کاشت

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 بخش زراعی و باغی مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی سیستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی

2 دکتری زراعت، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند

چکیده

با عنایت به محدودیت در فراهمی آب، تأمین حد مطلوب و بهینه مصرف آب جهت دستیابی به عملکرد بالا و اقتصادی در زراعت ارزن حائز اهمیت است. این پژوهش برای ارزیابی اثر تنش خشکی بر عملکرد و برخی خصوصیات فیزیولوژیک ارزن دم‌روباهی در تاریخ­های مختلف کاشت انجام شد. آزمایش مزرعه­ای به‌صورت کرت‌های خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال­های ۱۳۹۱ و ۱۳۹۵ اجرا شد. تاریخ­های کاشت (1، ۱۵ و ۳۰ اسفند و ۱۵ فروردین) در کرت­های اصلی و تنش خشکی (۵۰، ۶۵ و ۸۰ درصد ظرفیت زراعی) در کرت­های فرعی قرار گرفتند. در طول فصل زراعی صفات ارتفاع بوته، تعداد پنجه، طول پانیکول، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد علوفه‌تر و خشک، تعداد روز تا گل­دهی، وزن هزار دانه، غلظت پرولین و محتوای کلروفیل تعیین شد. نتایج نشان داد که صفات اندازه­گیری شده تحت تأثیر تاریخ کاشت قرار گرفت. کاشت گیاه در 15 اسفند بیشترین عملکرد دانه و صفات دیگر را تولید کرد. بیشترین کاهش عملکرد دانه مربوط به تاریخ کاشت 15 فروردین بود. عملکرد دانه و صفات فیزیولوژیک ارزن در اثر کمبود آب کاهش نشان داد. بیشترین عملکرد دانه در 50 درصد ظرفیت زراعی تولید شد. کمترین عملکرد دانه در 80 درصد زراعی به دست آمد، ولی غلظت پرولین در این تیمار بیشترین مقدار بود. عملکرد دانه در تیمار 50 درصد ظرفیت زراعی نسبت به تیمار 80 درصد، 74 درصد افزایش داشت. درمجموع عملکرد دانه و خصوصیات فیزیولوژیک ارزن به‌طور قابل‌توجهی از شرایط تنش خشکی تأثیر پذیرفت؛ بنابراین جهت دستیابی به بیشینه عملکرد دانه و علوفه، کاشت رقم باستان باید در تاریخ 15 اسفند و مدیریت آبیاری آن بر مبنای 50 درصد ظرفیت زراعی صورت گیرد.

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