تأثیر سطوح مختلف تنش خشکی بر برخی ویژگی‌های مورفولوژیکی، فیزیولوژیکی و فیتوشیمیایی توده‌های مختلف گشنیز (.Coriandrum sativum L)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری ژنتیک و به‌نژادی گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 استاد گروه ژنتیک و به‌نژادی گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

3 دانش‌آموخته دکتری ژنتیک و به‌نژادی گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

گشنیز یکی از مهم‌ترین گیاهانی است که در صنایع دارویی استفاده می‌شود. به ‌منظور بررسی تاثیر تنش خشکی بر خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی، فیزیولوژیکی و فیتوشیمیایی، نسل‌های F2 حاصل از تلاقی‌های یکطرفه شش توده بومی گشنیز شامل اصفهان، همدان، بوشهر، مازندران، مرکزی و البرز به همراه والدین مربوطه در مجموع 21 ژنوتیپ در سه شرایط متفاوت آبیاری (آبیاری نرمال، تنش ملایم و تنش شدید) به طور جداگانه در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در هر آزمایش در سال زراعی 95-1394 در مزرعه دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. صفات اندازه‌گیری شده در این آزمایش شامل، ارتفاع گیاه، تعداد برگ، تعداد شاخه در گیاه، تعداد چتر در گیاه، تعداد چتر بارور در گیاه، تعداد میوه در گیاه، وزن هزار میوه، وزن میوه در گیاه یا عملکرد میوه، عملکرد بیولوژیک، محتوای اسانس میوه، عملکرد اسانس، محتوای کلروفیل، محتوای رطوبت نسبی و شاخص پایداری غشا یا نشت یونی بودند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس و مقایسه میانگین‌ها نشان داد که اثر تنش خشکی بر کلیه صفات مورد بررسی معنی‌دار بود. نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش تنش خشکی اکثر صفات مورد بررسی کاهش یافتند در حالی که محتوای اسانس به طور معنی‌داری افزایش یافت. بیشترین محتوای اسانس در شرایط تنش ملایم مشاهده شد. همچنین در این مطالعه از شاخص تحمل به تنش (STI) بعنوان مناسب‌ترین شاخص برای ارزیابی تحمل به خشکی ژنوتیپ‌های گشنیز استفاده شد. در بین ژنوتیپ‌های مورد بررسی، ژنوتیپ مازندران و تلاقی‌های حاصل از این ژنوتیپ (البرز مازندران، مر کزی مازندران، اصفهان مازندران، مازندران همدان و مازندران بوشهر) متحمل‌ترین ژنوتیپ‌ها به خشکی شناخته شدند. بر پایه نتایج این پژوهش، به نظر می‌رسد بتوان از این ژنوتیپ‌ها به عنوان منابع حاوی ژن‌های تحمل به خشکی برای اصلاح ژنوتیپ‌های با ظرفیت عملکرد اسانس و میوه بالا در مناطق خشک استفاده کرد.

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