تاثیر تنش خشکی بر فعالیت آنتی اکسیدان‌های آنزیمی، مقادیر مالون‌دی‌آلدئید، پروتئین محلول و نیتروژن کل برگ سویا (.Glycine max L)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس آزمایشگاه شیمی و حاصلخیزی خاک، گروه علوم خاک، کارشناس ارشد هواشناسی کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

2 استاد گروه مهندسی علوم آب، دکترای هواشناسی کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری.

3 دانشیار گروه زراعت، دکترای زراعت، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری.

چکیده

این پژوهش با هدف بررسی تاثیر تنش خشکی بر فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدان‌های آنزیمی گیاه سویا (رقم ساری)، در سال 1391 در دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری انجام شد. در این پژوهش اثر چهار تیمار آبی در یک آزمایش گلدانی در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با شش تکرار بررسی شد. گیاهان پس از مرحله‌ی چهار برگی به تصادف به چهار سطح آبی 100 (شاهد، W0)، 60 (تنش ملایم، W1)، 40 (تنش میانه، W2) و 20 (تنش شدید، W3) درصد آب قابل دسترس (AW) اختصاص یافتند. در ابتدا همه تیمارها تا 100 درصد آب دسترس آبیاری شدند و آبیاری‌های بعدی پس از رسیدن رطوبت خاک به درصد تعریف‌شده برای هر تیمار انجام می‌شد. در مرحله‌های زایشی R4 و R5 (45 روز پس آغاز تنش) اقدام به نمونه‌برداری برای سنجش آنزیم‌ها و نیتروژن برگ شد. یافته‌ها نشان داد که فعالیت آنزیم کاتالاز تا 60 درصد آب قابل دسترس، نسبت به شاهد 65 درصد افزایش داشت، آنگاه با افزایش شدت تنش فعالیت آن کاهش یافت. همچنین فعالیت آنزیم پراکسیداز، مقدار مالون‌دی‌آلدئید (MDA) و نیتروژن کل برگ نیز با کاهش آب خاک، تا سطح 20 درصد آب قابل دسترس نسبت به شاهد به ترتیب 43، 22 و 26 درصد افزایش یافت. با کاهش 20 درصدی آب قابل دسترس، مقدار پروتئین محلول برگ نسبت به شاهد 12 درصد کاهش نشان داد و تفاوت معنی‌داری میان تیمارهای W2 و W3 و شاهد دیده شد. نتایج گویای آن است که در تنش خشکی ملایم فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی‌اکسیدانی افزایش یافت و پیامد آن، کاهش آسیب گونه‌های فعال اکسیژن (ROS) بود که خود باعث نقش حفاظتی بسیار موثری در مراحل فتوسنتزی گیاه می‌گردد. نتیجه این سازوکار فیزیولوژیک بهبود عملکرد دانه در بوته در بازه تخلیه رطوبتی فوق بود.

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