واکنش جوانه‌زنی بذر و رشد گیاهچه ژنوتیپ‌های گندم (.Triticum aestivum and Triticum durum L) به تنش شوری در رژیم‌های مختلف دمایی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه زراعت، واحد شوشتر، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، شوشتر

2 گروه زراعت، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر برهمکنش شوری و دما بر جوانه‌زنی و رشد گیاهچه سه ژنوتیپ گندم نان و دوروم، آزمایشی در سال 93-1392 در آزمایشگاه تخصصی واحد علوم تحقیقات خوزستان در محیط کشت پتری دیش انجام شد. آزمایش به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی و چهار تکرار با سه فاکتور دما (15/10، 25/20 و 35/30 درجه سانتی گراد به ترتیب شب و روز)، ژنوتیپ‌های گندم (دو ژنوتیپ نان شامل رقم چمران و لاین 20 سراسری و لاین دوروم D85-17) و شوری (صفر، دو، چهار، هشت و 12 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر) اجرا شد. نتایج نشان داد که افزایش شوری باعث کاهش معنی‌دار درصد جوانه‌زنی در ژنوتیپ‌های گندم شد. ژنوتیپ‌های گندم در دمای 25/20 درجه سانتی گراد بیشترین رشد گیاهچه را به خود اختصاص دادند. بیشترین و کمترین درصد جوانه‌زنی در دمای 15/10 و 35/30 درجه سانتی گراد مشاهده شد. لاین دوروم D85-17 در مقایسه با دو ژنوتیپ‌ نان حساسیت بیشتری نسبت به شوری و دما داشت. افزایش دمای محیط، اثر شوری بر جوانه‌زنی و رشد گیاهچه را تشدید کرد. افزایش دما موجب تشدید اثر شوری بر طول ساقه‌چه شد به نحوی که میزان کاهش طول ساقه‌چه در شوری 12 دسی‌زیمنس نسبت به شاهد آب مقطر در دماهای 15/10، 25/20 و 30/35 به ترتیب 33.3، 50 و 84 درصد بود. نسبت سدیم به پتاسیم در گیاهچه ژنوتیپ‌های گندم در دماهای بالا افزایش یافت. لاین دوروم D85-17از نسبت سدیم به پتاسیم و حساسیت بیشتر به شوری در مقایسه با دو ژنوتیپ نان برخوردار بود.

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