اثر منابع پتاسیم بر جذب و کاهش تنش کادمیوم توسط کلزا (.Brassica napus L)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم مهندسی خاک دانشکده آب و خاک دانشگاه زابل

2 گروه علوم مهندسی خاک دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، مشهد

چکیده

کادمیوم از فلزات سنگین و عنصری سمی برای گیاهان است که از طریق فعالیتهای مختلف بشر وارد خاک می­شود. به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر استفاده از کودهای کلرور و سولفات پتاسیم بر جذب کادمیوم و ارتقای گیاه­پالایی آن توسط گیاه کلزا (Brassica napus. L) رقم مدنا، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با 4 سطح پتاسیم (صفر، 100، 200 و 300 میلی گرم پتاسیم در کیلوگرم) از منابع کلرور و سولفات پتاسیم به‌طور جداگانه و 3 سطح کادمیوم (صفر، 15 و 30 میلی­گرم کادمیوم در کیلوگرم) از منبع نیترات کادمیوم در سه تکرار، در گلخانه مرکز تحقیقات مشهد انجام شد. با توجه به نتایج تجزیه واریانس اثرات کادمیوم و کودهای پتاسیم و برهمکنش آن­ها بر مقدار کادمیوم ریشه و اندام هوایی، وزن خشک و پتاسیم ریشه اثری معنی­دار داشت (p<0.01). هم­چنین بر اساس نتایج، اثرات اصلی کودهای پتاسیم و کادمیوم بر وزن خشک و پتاسیم اندام هوایی اثر معنی­ داری داشت (p<0.01)، درحالی‌که اثر برهمکنش آن­ها بر وزن خشک و پتاسیم اندام هوایی معنی­دار نشد. هم­چنین کاربرد کادمیوم نشان داد که با افزایش کادمیوم، پتاسیم اندام هوایی به‌طور معنی­ داری کاهش یافت و در تمام سطوح پتاسیم کاهش معنی­داری را نشان دادند. در این بررسى بین کودهای پتاسیم تفاوت معنی‌داری مشاهده شد، به‌طوری‌که بالاترین مقدار جذب کادمیوم با مصرف 300 میلى­گرم پتاسیم در کیلوگرم به­صورت کلرور پتاسیم به دست آمد. بنابراین بر اساس نتایج آزمایش گلخانه­ای با مصرف کود کلرور پتاسیم کارایی گیاه­ پالایى بهبود یافت اگرچه تداوم تحقیقات در شرایط مزرعه ضروری به نظر می­رسد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


Abedi, K.J., Afyuni, M., Mostafazdeh, B., Bagheri, M.R., 2001. Influence of treated waste water and irrigation systems on soil physical properties in Isfahan province. In: Ragab, R., Pearce, G., Kim, J.C., Nairizi, S., Hamdy, A. (eds.), Proceeding of International Workshop on Wastewater Reuse Management, 52nd IEC Meeting and 1st Asian Regional Conference of the International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID), Seoul, Korea, pp. 165-173.

Abedi, K.J., Matin, N., Javahery Tehrani, M., 2015. Uptake of cadmium by cress, lettuce and tomato in Cd-contaminated soil. Journal of Science and Technology of Greenhouse Culture. 6(1), 41-53. [In Persian with English Summary].

Black, C.A., Evans D.D., 1965. Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1 and 2. Agronomy 9. American Society of Agronomy. Madison, WI. USA.

Bingham, F.T., Garrison, S., Strong J.E., 1986. The effect of sulfate on the availability of cadmium. Soil Science. 141, 172–177.

Brown, S. ., Chaney, R.L., Angle, J. S., Baker, A. J. M., 1994. Phytoremediation potential of Thlaspi caerulescens and bladder campion for zinc and cadmium-contaminated soil. Journal of Environmental Quality. 23, 1151-1157.

Costa, G., Spitz, E., 1997. Influence of cadmium on soluble carbohydrates, free amino acids, protein content of in vitro cultured Lupinus albus. Journal of Plant Sciences. 128, 131-140.

Cui, Y., Dong, Y., Li, H., Wang, Q., 2004. Effect of elemental sulphur on solubility of soil heavy metals and their uptake by maize. Environment International. 30, 323-328.

Das, P., Rout, R., Samantaray, S., 2000. Studies on cadmium toxicity in plants: A Review. Environmental Pollution. 98, 29-36.

Davies, B. E., 1990. Applied soil trace element. Field Crops Research. 4, 451-459.

Ehyaee, M., Asgharzadeh, A., 1996. Description of the methods of chemical analysis. Technical publication No. 983. Soil and Water Research Institute, Tehran, Iran. [In Persian].

Gao, X., Mohr, R.L., Mclaren, D.L., Grant, C.A., 2011. Grain cadmium and zinc concentrations in wheat as affected by genotypic variation and potassium chloride fertilization. Field Crops Research. 122, 95-103.

Gee, G.W., Or, D., 2002. Particle-size analysis.  In: Dane, J.H., Topp, G.C., (eds.), Methods of soil analysis. Part, 4, Physical Methods, Soils Science Society of America, Book Series No. 5, Madison, pp. 255-293.

Gomes, M.P., Marques, T.C.L.L.S.M., Carneiro, M.M.L.C., Soares, A.M., 2012. Anatomical characteristics and nutrient uptake and distribution associated with the Cd-phytoremediation capacity of Eucalyptus canaldulenses Dehnh. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 12, 481-495.

Grant, C., Bailey, L., McLaughlin, M., Singh, B., 1999. Management factors which influence cadmium concentration in crops. In: McLaughlin, M., Singh, B., (eds.), Cadmium in Soils and Plants. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, pp. 151-198.

Hao, X.Z., Zhou, D.M., Li, D.D., Jiang, P., 2012. Growth, cadmium and zinc accumulation of ornamental sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in contaminated soil with different amendments. Pedosphere. 22(5), 631-639.

Helmke, P.H., Spark, D.L., 1996. Potassium. In: Sparks, D.L., et al. (eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Soil Science Society of America. Inc. American Society of Agronomy. Inc. Madison, WI. pp. 551-574.

Keck, R. W., 1978. Cadmium alteration of root physiology and potassium ion fluxes. Plant Physiology. 62(1), 94-96.

Khosravi, F., Savaghebi, Gh. R., Farahbakhsh, M., 2009. Effect of potassium chloride on Cd uptake by canola and sunflower in a polluted soil. Journal of Water and Soil (Agricultural Science and Technology). 23(3), 28-35. [In Persian with English Summary].

Kramer, U., 2005. Phytoremediation novel approaches to cleaning up polluted soils. Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 16, 133-141.

Lindsay, W.L., Norvell, W.A., 1978. Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese, and copper. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 42, 421-428.

Marschner, H., 1995. Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. 2nd ed. Academic Press, San Diego, USA. 889p.

Mclaughlin, M.J., Lambrechts, R.M., Smolders, E., Smart, M.K., 1998. Effects of sulfate on cadmium uptake by Swiss chard: II. Effects due to sulfate addition to soil. Journal of Plant and Soil. 202, 217-222.

Mengel, K., Kirkby, E., 1987. Principle of Plant Nutrition. 4th ed. International Potash Institute, IPI, Bern. Switzerland. 685p.

Mireles, A., Solis, C., Andrade, E., Lagunas-Solar, M., Pina, C., Flocchini, R.G., 2004. Heavy metal accumulation in plants and soil irrigated with wastewater from Mexico City. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. 219-220, 187-190.

Mohammadi, M., Shiravani, S., Fotovat, A., Haghnia, Gh. H., 2006. Radishes and cress compared the absorption of zinc and cadmium and study their interactions. Proceedings of the International Conference on Soil, Environment and Sustainable Development, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources publications Tehran University, Karaj, Iran. pp: 317-318. [In Persian].

Mohamadiyan, Z., Gholamalizade Ahangar, A., Ghorbani, M., Mohkami, Z., 2016. The effect of potassium fertilizers on lead and cadmium phytoremediation. Journal of Water and Soil Conservation. 23(3), 273-287. [In Persian with English Summary].

Nascimento, C.W.A., Amarasiriwardena, D., Xing, B., 2006. Comparison of natural organic acids and synthetic chelates at enhancing phytoextraction of metals from a multi-metal contaminated soil. Environmental Pollution. 140, 114-123.

Nigam, R., Srivastava, Sh., Prakash, S., Srivastava, M. M., 2001. Cadmium mobilization and plant availability: The impact of organic acids commonly extruded from roots. Plant and Soil. 203, 107-117.

Norvell, W.A., Wu, J., Hopkins, D.G., Welch, R.M., 2000. Association of cadmium in durum wheat grain with soil chloride and chelate-extractable soil cadmium. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 64, 2162-8.

Olsen, S.R., Cole, C.V., Wattenberg, F.S., Dean, L.A., 1954. Estimation of available phosphorus in soil by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. United States Department of Agriculture. USA. NO. 939, 19p.

Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Do. Keeney, R., 1982. Method of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological properties. 2nd ed. American Society of Agronomy. Soil Science Society of America. Publisher, Madison, USA.

Sabiha-Javied, T., Mehmood, M.M., Chaudhry, M., Tufail, N., 2009. Heavy metal pollution from phosphate rock used for the production of fertilizer in Pakistan. Irfan Microchemical Journal. 91, 94-99.

Sakurai, K., Huang, P. M., 1996. Influence of potassium chloride on desorption of Cd sorbed on hydroxyalminosilicate-montmorillonite complex. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 42(3), 475-481.

Savaghebi, Gh.R., Malakuti, M.G., 2000. The effects of interaction of cadmium and potassium on dry matter production on concentration and uptake cadmium and potassium in wheat. Journal of Soil and Water. 12(9), 44-53. [In Persian with English Summary].

Schmidt, U., 2003. Enhancing phytoremediation: The effect of chemical soil manipulation on mobility, plant accumulation, and leaching of heavy metals. Journal of Environment Quality. 32, 1939-1954.

Sharma, P., Dubey, R.S., 2005. Lead toxicity in plants. Plant Physiology. 17, 35-52.

Shi, G., Cai, O., 2009. Cadmium tolerance and accumulation in eight potential energy crops. Biotechnology Advances. 27, 555-561.

Sparrow, L., Salardini, A.A., Bishop, A., 1994. Field studies of Cd in potatoes response of Cu., Russet Burband. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 45(1), 243-249.

Su, Ch., Sun, L., Heng Sun, T., Ch, L., Guo, G., 2007. Interaction between cadmium, Lead and potassium sulfate in a Soil-Plant system. Journal of Environmental Geochemistry and Health. 29(5), 435-446.

Ueno, D., Ma, J.F., Iwashita, T., Zhao, F.J., Grath, S.P., 2005. Identification of the form of Cd in the leaves of a superior Cd-accumulating ecotype of Thlaspi caerulescens using 113Cd-NMR. Journal of Planta. 221, 928-936.

Walkley, A., Black, I.A., 1934. Chromic acid titration for determination of soil organic matter. Soil Science. 63, 251.

Wenger, K., Keller, A., Attinger, W., 2000. Enhancement of phytoextraction of Zn, Cd from calcareous soils. Environmental Science and Technology. 34, 1778-1783.

Wu, J., Norvell, W.A., Hopkins, D.G., Welch, R.M., 2002. Spatial variability of grain cadmium and soil characteristics in a durum wheat field. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 66, 268-75.

Yang, J., Skogley, E., 2008. Copper and cadmium effects on potassium adsorption and buffering capacity. Soil Science Society of America. 54, 739-744.

Zhao, Zh. Q., Zhu, Y. G., Li, H. Y., Smith, S. E., Smith, F. A., 2003. Effects of forms and rates of potassium fertilizers on cadmium uptake by two cultivars of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Environment International. 29(7), 973-978.