بررسی پاسخ گندم (.Triticum aestivum L) به مصرف سلنیم تحت شرایط تنش کادمیم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم خاک، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد.

2 بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان خراسان جنوبی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، بیرجند، ایران.

3 بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، مشهد، ایران.

چکیده

بر اساس برخی گزارشات، متوسط کادمیم در برخی خاک‌ها و محصولات زراعی ایران از مقادیری که توسط سازمان خوار و بار کشاورزی و سازمان بهداشت جهانی به عنوان سطح مجاز معرفی شده، بیشتر می‌باشد. در دهه‌های اخیر، به منظور کاهش اثرات مخرب کادمیم در گیاهان استفاده از عناصری نظیر سلنیم که خاصیت آنتاگونیستی با کادمیم دارند مورد توجه قرار گرفته‌اند. پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی پاسخ گیاه گندم (رقم فلات) به مصرف سلنیم در شرایط تنش کادمیم انجام شد. به این منظور، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی در سه تکرار و در شرایط گلدانی در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی اجرا گردید. فاکتورهای آزمایشی شامل چهار سطح سلنیم (0، 5/0، 1 و 4 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم) و سه سطح کادمیم (0، 5 و 15 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم) بود. صفات مورد بررسی شامل غلظت کلروفیل a، b، کاروتنوئید، پرولین، فعالیت آنزیم کاتالاز و وزن خشک ساقه بود. نتایج نشان داد با افزایش غلظت کادمیم در خاک، محتوی رنگدانه‌های فتوسنتزی و فعالیت آنزیمی گندم کاهش ولی میزان پرولین افزایش یافت. در مقابل، گیاهانی که در معرض تنش کادمیم قرار داشتند و هم‌زمان غلظت‌های کمی از سلنیم نیز دریافت ‌کردند در مقایسه با گیاهان مشابه که سلنیم دریافت نکردند محتوی کلروفیل b و فعالیت آنزیمی بیشتری داشتند. با این وجود، سلنیم تاثیر مثبتی بر غلظت کاروتنوئید، کلروفیل a و وزن خشک ساقه گندم نداشت. ضمناً غلظت‌های زیاد سلنیم نه تنها تاثیر سودمندی بر صفات مورد بررسی نداشت بلکه باعث کاهش غلظت رنگدانه‌های فتوسنتزی، فعالیت آنزیمی و وزن خشک ساقه گردید. در مجموع می‌توان نتیجه‌گیری کرد که در شرایط تنش کادمیم، مصرف غلظت‌های مناسبی از سلنیم باعث بهبود برخی پارامترهای فیزیولوژیکی گندم می‌گردد.

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