بررسی تأثیر سطوح تنش رطوبتی بر عملکرد، میزان اسانس و خصوصیات فیزیولوژیکی گیاه زوفایی (.Thymbra spicata L)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی اکولوژی گیاهان زراعی، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ایلام

2 عضو هیئت‌علمی، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ایلام

3 دانشیار، موسسه تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع کشور، بخش تحقیقات گیاهان دارویی و محصولات فرعی

چکیده

هدف انجام این آزمایش بررسی تغییرات عملکرد بوته، اسانس و برخی ویژگی­های فیزیولوژیک برگ دو اکوتیپ گیاه داروئی زوفایی به اعمال تنش رطوبتی بود. آزمایش در قالب طرح کرت­های خرد­شده بر پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار و در دو سال (1395 و 1396) در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه ایلام انجام گرفت. کرت­های اصلی شامل سه سطح تنش رطوبتی (آبیاری نرمال، تنش ملایم و تنش شدید) و کرت­های فرعی دربرگیرنده فاکتور فرعی شامل دو اکوتیپ گیاه زوفایی بود. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که سطوح مختلف تیمارهای تنش رطوبتی بر صفات موردبررسی ازجمله عملکرد خشک برگ و بوته، درصد و عملکرد اسانس، شاخص سطح برگ، ارتفاع بوته و رنگیزه­ های فتوسنتزی تأثیر معنی­داری داشت. به‌طوری‌که افزایش فاصله آبیاری از آبیاری نرمال تا تنش شدید سبب کاهش معنی­دار تمامی صفات مذکور شد. بیشترین عملکرد خشک برگ، بوته، شاخص سطح برگ و کلروفیل a در تیمار آبیاری نرمال و بیشترین میزان درصد و عملکرد اسانس، کلروفیل b، کلروفیل کل و کاروتنوئید در تیمار تنش ملایم حاصل گردید. با توجه به یافته­های آزمایش اکوتیپ ملکشاهی ازنظر عملکرد خشک برگ و بوته، درصد و عملکرد اسانس نسبت به اکوتیپ سومار برتری داشت. نتیجه بررسی دوساله آزمایش نشان داد که طی سال دوم به دلیل افزایش ارتفاع و شاخص سطح برگ بوته­ ها، میانگین صفاتی از قبیل عملکرد خشک برگ و بوته و عملکرد اسانس 1.7 درصد نسبت به سال اول آزمایش افزایش نشان داد. ازآنجاکه دو اکوتیپ مورد آزمایش در طبیعت به‌صورت خودرو بوده و با شرایط اقلیمی ناپایدار و نامنظم بارشی سازگاری یافته­اند، بنابراین اعمال آبیاری منظم در کشت آن‌ها به‌صورت زراعی در مقایسه با ایجاد محدودیت آبی ملایم موجب پاسخ منفی این گیاه ازنظر درصد و عملکرد اسانس و سایر خصوصیات رشدی می­گردد که در مدیریت زراعی آن باید در نظر گرفته شود.

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