بررسی کاربرد کود بیولوژیک و نانو اکسید روی بر انتقال مجدد و شاخص سطح برگ گیاه تریتیکاله (Triticosecale Witt.) در شرایط شوری خاک

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی.

2 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی.

چکیده

به­منظور مطالعه عملکرد دانه، انتقال مجدد و شاخص سطح برگ تریتیکاله در واکنش به کاربرد کودهای بیولوژیک و نانواکسید روی در شرایط شوری خاک، آزمایشی در سال 1393 در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا گردید. فاکتورهای موردبررسی شامل شوری خاک در چهار سطح (عدم اعمال شوری، شوری 20، 40 و 60 میلی­ مولار)، کاربرد کودهای زیستی در چهار سطح (عدم کاربرد، کاربرد میکوریز، کاربرد توأم باکتری­های سودوموناس و ازتوباکتر، کاربرد توأم میکوریز و باکتری­های محرک رشد) و محلول­ پاشی با نانواکسید روی در سه سطح (عدم مصرف، مصرف 0.4 و 0.8 گرم در لیتر) بودند. نتایج نشان داد با افزایش شوری عملکرد و شاخص سطح برگ کاهش ولی انتقال مجدد از کل اندام هوایی و ساقه افزایش یافت. مقایسه میانگین ­ها نشان داد بالاترین عملکرد دانه و حداکثر شاخص سطح برگ در حالت کاربرد توأم میکوریز و باکتری­های محرک رشد، محلول­پاشی 0.8 گرم در لیتر نانواکسید روی و عدم اعمال شوری به دست آمد. بیش­ترین انتقال مجدد از ساقه و کل اندام هوایی در حالت شوری 60 میلی ­مولار، عدم کاربرد کودهای بیولوژیک و عدم محلول ­پاشی به دست آمد. اعمال شوری 20، 40 و 60 میلی­ مولار، عملکرد دانه را به ترتیب 8.9، 22.1 و 32.3 درصد کاهش داد و استفاده توأم کودهای بیولوژیک و نانواکسید روی به ترتیب 40.1، 49.7 و 40 درصد از این کاهش عملکرد را جبران کردند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


Abasspour, S., 2011. Effects of seed inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on grain yield and some agronomic charachterstics of triticale. MSC thesis. University of Mohaghegh Ardabili. Ardabil Iran. [In Persian with English Summary].

Abid, M., Qayyum, A., Dasti, A., Abdilwajid, R., 2001. Effect of salinity and SAR ofirrigation water on yield, physiological growth parameters of maize and properties of thesoil. Journal of Research, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan, 12(1), 26-33.

Alloway, B.J., 2004. Zinc in soils and crop nutrition. International Zinc Association. (IZA), Belgium, 128p.

Asch, F., Dingkuhn, M., Dorffling, K., 2000. Salinity increases CO2 assimilation but reduces growth in field grown, irrigated rice. Plant and Soil. 218, 1-10.

Ashrafuzzaman, M., Akhtar, H.F., Razi, M.I., Anamul, M.D.H., Zahurul, M.I., Shahidullah, S.M., Sariah, M., 2009. Efficiency of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for the enhancement of rice growth. African Journal of Biotechnology. 8(7), 1247-1252.

Asseng, S., Van Herwaarden, A.F., 2003. Analysis of the benefits to wheat yield from assimilates stored prior to grain filling in a range of environments. Plant and Soil. 256, 217-239.

Bashan, Y., Holguin, G., Bashan, L.E., 2004. Azospirillum-plant relationships: agricultural, physiological, molecular and environmental advances (1997-2003). Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 50, 521-577.

Ben Ghnaya, A., 2007. Morphological and physiological characteristics of rapeseed plants regenerated in vitro from thin cell layers in the presence of zinc. Plant and Biology. 330, 728-734.

Betran, F.J., Beck, D., Banziger, M., Edmeades, G.O., 2003. Secondary traits in parental inbreeds and hybrids under stress and non-stress environments in tropical maize. Field Crops Research. 83, 51-65.

Blum, A., 1998. Improving wheat grain filling under stress by stem reserves mobilization. Euphytica. 100, 77-83.

Boomsma, C.R., Vyn, T.J., 2008. Maize drought tolerance: Potential improvements through arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Field Crops Research. 108, 14-31.

Borde, M., Dudhane, M., Jite, P., 2011. Growth photosynthetic activity and antioxidant responses of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal bajra (Pennisetum glaucum) crop under salinity stress condition. Crop Protection. 30, 265-271.

Bouthaina, A.E.G., Rhawhia, A.M., Tomader, E.R., Mona Morsy, E.S., 2010. Effect of some soil microorganisms on soil properties and wheat production under north sinai conditions. Journal of Applied Sciences Research. 4(5), 559-579.

Croser, C., Renault, S., Franklin, J., Zwiazek, J., 2001. The effect of salinity on the emergence and seedling growth of Picea morian, Piccea glausa and Pinus banksiana. Environmental Pollution. 115, 6-16.

Dodd, I.C., Perez-Alfocea, F., 2012. Microbial amelioration of crop salinity stress. Experimental Botany. 63(9), 3415-3428.

Dordas, C. A., Sioulas, C., 2009. Dry matter and nitrogen accumulation, partitioning, and retranslocation in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) as affected by nitrogen fertilization. Field Crops Research. 110, 35-43.

El-bassiouny, H.S., 2005. Effect of nicotinamide and tryptophan on wheat. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 7(4), 653-659.

Han, H., Supanjani, K., Lee, D., 2006. Effect of co-inoculation with phosphate and potassium solubilizing bacteria on mineral uptake and growth of pepper and cucumber. Plant, Soil and Environment. 52(3), 130-136.

Hassegawa, R.H., Fonseca, H., Fanclli, A.L., Da Silva, V.N., Schammass, E.A., Reis, T.A., Correa, B., 2008. Influence of macro-and micro nutrient fertilization on fungal contamination and fumonisin production in corn grains. Food Control. 19, 36-43.

Hemantaranjan, A., Gray, O.K. 1988. Iron and zinc fertilization with reference to the grain quality Triticum aestivum L. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 11, 1439-1452.

Inoue, T., Inanaga, S., Sugimoto, Y., Eneji, A.E., 2004. Effect of drought on ear and flag leaf photosynthesis of two wheat Cultivars differing in drought resistance. Photosynthetica. 42, 559- 565.

Javaid, A., 2010. Effect of biofertilizer combined with different amendments on potted rice plants. Univesity of the Punjab, Institute of Plant Patology, Quid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore, Pakistan. 3 August.

Kao, W.Y., Tsai, T., Tsai, H., Shih, C.N., 2006. Response of three glycine species to salt stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 56, 120-125.

Khalilzadeh, R., Seyed Sharifi, R., Jalilian, J. 2017. Growth, physiological status and yield of salt-stressed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants as affected by application of bio fertilizer and cycocel. Arid Land Research and Management. 1, 1-9.

Khandkar, U. R., Jain, N.K., Shinde, D.A., 1992. Response of irrigated wheat to ZnS04 application in vertisol. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science. 40, 399-400.

Kheirizadeh Arough, Y., Seyed Sharifi, R., Sedghi, M., Barmaki, M., 2014. Effects of biofertilizers and nano zinc oxide on remobilization and some growth indices of triticale under water limitation condition. Journal of Plant Echophysiology. 26(7), 37-56. [In Persian with English Summary].

Khoshgoftarmanesh, A.H. 2007. Principles of Plant Nutrition. Isfahan University of Technology press. 462 p. [In Persian].

Lelley, T. 2006. Triticale: A low-input cereal with untapped potential. p. 398-430. In Singh, J.R., (Ed.) Genetic Resources Choromosome Engineering and Crop Improvement. CRC Taylor.

Mader, P., Kaiser, F., Adholeya, A., Singh, R., Uppal, H.S., Sharma, A.K., Srivastava, R., Sahai, V., Aragno, M., Wiemken, A., Johri, B. N., Fried, P.M., 2011. Inoculation of root microorganisms for sustainable wheaterice and wheateblack gram rotations in India. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 43, 609-619.

Masoni, A., Ercoli, L., Mariotti, M., Arduini, I. 2007. Post-anthesis accumulation and remobilization of dry matter, nitrogen and phosphorus in durum wheat as affected by soiltype. European Journal of Agronomy. 26, 179-186.

Mehdipour-Moghaddam, M.J., Emtiazi, G., Salehi, Z., 2012. Enhanced auxin production by Azospirillum pure cultures from plant root exudates. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 14, 985-994.

Mostajeran A., Amooaghaei R., and Emtiazi, G., 2005. The effect of Azospirillum brasilense and pH of irrigation water on yield, protein content and sedimentation rate of protein in different wheat cultivars. Iranian Journal of Biology. 18(3), 248-260. [In Persian with English Summary].

Naderi, M.R., Abedi, A., 2012. Application of nanotechnology in agriculture and refinement of environmental pollutants. Nanotechnology Journal. 11(1), 18-26.

Ntanos, D.A., Koutroubas, S.D., 2002. Dry matter and N accumulation and translocation for Indica and Japonica rice under Mediterranean conditions. Field Crops Research. 74, 93-101.

Prasad, T. N., Sudhakar, P., Sreenivasulu, Y., Latha, P., Munaswamy, V., Raja Reddy, K., Sreeprasad, T.S., Sajanlal, P.R., 2012. Effect of nanoscale zinc-oxide particles on the germination, growth and yield of peanut. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 35, 905-927.

Roesty, D., Gaur, R., Johri, B. N. 2006. Plant growth stage, fertilizer management and bio-inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria affect the rhizobacterial community structure in rain-fed wheat fields. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 38: 1111-1120.

Saia, S., Ruisi, P., García-Garrido, J.M., Benítez, E., Amato, G., Giambalvo, D. 2012. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi enhance plant nitrogen capture from organic matter added to soil? 17th Nitrogen Workshop. 26-29 June. Wexford, Ireland.

Sajedi, N., Ardakani, M.R. 2006. Effect of different levels of nitrogen, iron and zinc on physiological indices and forage yield of maize (Zea mays L.) in Markazi province. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research. 6(1): 99-110. [In Persian with English Summary].

Seyed Sharifi, R., Nazarly, H.2013. Effects of seed priming with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on grain yield, fertilizer use efficiency and dry matter remobilization of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) with various levels of nitrogen fertilizer. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and Prodction Science. 3(23):27-45. [In Persian with English Summary].

Sharbatkhari, M., Galeshi, S., Sadat Shobbar, Z., Soltani A., Nakhoda, B., 2015. Evaluation of physiological traits related to wheat stem reserve remobilization under terminal salinity. Electric Journal of Crop Production. 7(1), 25-44. [In Persian with English Summary].

Wright, D.P., Scholes, J.D., Read, D.J., 1998. Effects of VA mycorrhizal colonization on photosynthesis and biomass production of Trifolium repense L. Plant, Cell and Environment. 21, 209-216.

Yang, J., Zhang, J., 2006. Grain filling of cereals under soil drying. New Phytologist. 169, 223-236.

Yilmaz, A., Ekiz, H., Torun, B., Guttekin, I., Karanlik, S., Baggi, S.A., Cakmak, I., 1997. Effect of different zinc application methods on grain yield and zinc concentration in weat cultivars grown on zinc deficient calcarcous soils. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 20, 461-471.