پاسخ گیاه همیشه‌بهار (Calendula officinalis L.) به اثرات متقابل تنش شوری و مواد آلی اصلاح‌کننده خاک

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه اردکان

2 استادیار گروه علوم باغبانی دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه اردکان، دانشگاه اردکان

چکیده

شوری یکی از مهم‌ترین عوامل محیطی محدودکننده رشد و حاصلخیزی گیاه در سراسر جهان است. هدف از مطالعه حاضر، بررسی اثر سطوح مختلف شوری و اصلاح‌کننده‌های آلی بر برخی شاخص‌های رشدی، میزان جذب عناصر نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم و میزان فعالیت آنزیم پراکسیداز در گیاه همیشه‌بهار (Calendula officinalis L.) بود. آزمایش به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی شامل پنج سطح از مواد اصلاحی (شاهد (بدون مواد اصلاح ­کننده)، نیم و یک گرم عصاره جلبک دریایی در یک لیتر آب، 20 درصد حجمی گلدان کود گاوی کاملاً پوسیده و 20 درصد حجمی گلدان کود ورمی‌کمپوست) و سه سطح شوری خاک (3.5، 7.5 و 10.5دسی‌زیمنس بر متر) با سه تکرار در گلخانه به اجرا درآمد. در این آزمایش بستر بدون کود به‌عنوان شاهد در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج به‌دست‌آمده نشان داد که با افزایش سطح شوری، شاخص‌های رشدی و غلظت عناصر غذایی به‌طور معنی‌داری کاهش یافت. بیشترین سطح برگ، ارتفاع گیاه، وزن‌تر و خشک شاخساره و ریشه و غلظت عناصر نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم در گیاهانی که با کود گاوی در هدایت الکتریکی (EC) برابر با 3.5 دسی‌زیمنس برمتر تیمار شده بودند، به دست آمد. مواد آلی در خاک به‌طور معنی‌داری خصوصیات رشدی همیشه‌بهار را در مقایسه با شاهد افزایش دادند. به دلیل غنی بودن کود گاوی از عناصر نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم گیاهان تیمار شده با آن در مقایسه با سایر تیمارها خصوصیات رشدی بهتری نشان دادند. با توجه به نتایج به‌دست‌آمده مشخص شد که اگرچه همیشه‌بهار در حالت عادی قادر به تحمل شوری تا 7.5دسی‌زیمنس برمتراست اما در صورت استفاده از بستر کشت مناسب آستانه تحمل گیاه تا 10.5 دسی‌زیمنس برمترافزایش خواهد یافت. همچنین مشخص شد که در میان تیمارهای موردبررسی، کود گاوی بهتر از بقیه توانست پایداری گیاه را در برابر شوری افزایش دهد و موجب بهبود خصوصیات رشدی آن گردد.

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