بررسی تاثیرالگوی کشت و سطوح کود پتاسیم بر برخی خصوصیات فیزیولوژیکی و عملکرد سیب زمینی (.Solanum tubersum L) در سطوح مختلف آبیاری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات،، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند

2 عضو هیئت‌علمی گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند.

3 عضو هیئت‌علمی بخش تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، مشهد.

چکیده

به‌منظور شناخت مناسب­‌ترین الگوی کشت و تأثیر کاربرد کود سولفات پتاسیم بر برخی خصوصیات فیزیولوژیکی و عملکرد غده در شرایط معمول و تنش آبی پژوهشی به‌صورت کرت ­های دو بار خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه واقع در جلگه رخ، خراسان رضوی در سال 1395 انجام گردید. فاکتورهای آزمایشی شامل الگوی کاشت در سه سطح: کاشت معمول (تراکم 6.6 بوته در مترمربع)، کاشت معمول متراکم (تراکم 7.4 بوته در مترمربع) و کاشت زیگزاگ (تراکم 7.4 بوته در مترمربع) در کرت اصلی، میزان آبیاری در سه سطح: 100 (شاهد)، 80 و 60 درصد آب مورد­نیاز در کرت فرعی و کود سولفات پتاسیم در سه سطح: عدم مصرف سولفات پتاسیم، 75 کیلوگرم سولفات پتاسیم در هکتار و 150 کیلوگرم سولفات پتاسیم در هکتار به‌عنوان کرت فرعی فرعی بود. نتایج نشان داد که الگوی کشت، میزان آبیاری و کود سولفات پتاسیم تأثیر معنی­داری بر حداکثر شاخص سطح برگ، محتوی نسبی آب برگ، تعداد کل غده، تعداد غده غیر بازار­پسند و عملکرد دارد و کاهش در ارتفاع بوته، حداکثر شاخص سطح برگ، محتوی نسبی آب برگ و عملکرد کل تحت شرایط 60 درصد آب مورد­نیاز نسبت به شاهد مشاهده گردید. بر اساس نتایج آزمایش بیشترین میزان عملکرد کل در الگوی کشت زیگزاگی با 100 درصد آب مورد­نیاز و مصرف 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود سولفات پتاسیم مشاهده شد. کشت زیگزاگی با ایجاد توزیع یکنواخت­تر و کاهش رقابت بین بوته­ها افزایش عملکرد را در پی داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


Alizadeh, A., 2006. Water, Soil and Plant Relationships. Imam Reza University of Mashhad Publication. 472p. [In Persian].

Alizadeh, A., Kamali, G.h., 2007. Water Requirement of Plants. Imam Reza University of Mashhad Publication. 223p. [In Persian].

Al-Mahmud, A., Md. Altaf, H., Md. Al-Mamun, A., Md. Shamimuzzaman, E.H., Md. Shafiur, R., Md. Shawquat, A.KH., Md. Bazzaz, M., 2014. Plant canopy, tuber yield and growth analysis of potato under moderate and severe drought condition. Journal of Plant Sciences. 2(5), 201-208.

Baghani, J., 2009. Effect of planting pattern and water quantity on potato cultivation with drip irrigation in Mashhad. Journal of Water and Soil. 23(1), 153-159. [In Persian with English Summary].

Bustan, A., Sagi M., Malach, Y.D., Pasternak, D., 2004. Effects of saline irrigation water and heat waves on potato production in an arid environment. Field Crops Research. 90, 275-285.

Beringer, H., Header, E., Lind hauer, M., 1993.Water relationships and in corporation of C4 assimilation tubers of potato plants differing in potassium nutrition. Plant Physiology. 73, 956-96

Cahskan, M.F., Struik, P.C., 2010. Prefect to special issue. Selected Paper and Abstract of Section Meeting Agro-Physiology; Nevsehir, Turkey. Potato Research. 4, 253.

Coleman, W.K., 2008. Evaluation of wild Solanum species for drought resistance: 1. Solanum gandarillasii Cardenas. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 62(3), 221-230.

Deblonde, P.M.K., Ledent, J.F., 2001. Effects of moderate drought conditions on green leaf number, stem height, leaf length and tuber yield of potato cultivars. European Journal of Agronomy. 14(1), 31-41.

Erickson, I.J., Ketring, D.L., Stone, J.F., 1991. Response of internal-tissue water balance of peanut to soil water. Agronomy Journal. 72, 73-80.

Eskandari, A., Khazaie, H.R., Nezami, A., Kafi, M., 2011. Study the effects of irrigation regimes on yield and some qualitative characteristics of three cultivars of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Journal of Water and Soil. 25(2), 240-247. . [In Persian with English Summary].

Eskandari, A., Khazaie, H.R., Nezami, A., Kafi, M., Majd Abadi, A., 2011. The effect of irrigation on physiological characteristics, yield and water use efficiency of potato (Solanum tuberosum L) in Mashhad climatic conditions. Journal of Horticultural Science. 25(2), 201-210. . [In Persian with English Summary].

Fakhari, R., Tobeh, A., Hasanzadeh, N., Barghi, A., Shiri, M., 2013. Studying effects of different irrigation levels and planting patterns on yield and water use efficiency in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences. 4 (7), 1941-1945.

FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization) 2017. FAOSTAT database for agriculture. Available online at: http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#compare.

Ghanbari, A., Farboudi, M., Alimohammadi, R., Faramarzi, A., Jamshidi, S, Shamspour, S., 2007. Effects of potassium sulfate (K2SO4) on quantity and quality of agria and satina potato cultivars in Miyaneh region, Iran. Journal of New Agricultural Science (Modern Science of Sustainable Agriculture). 3(6), 69-79. [In Persian with English Summary].

Hagman, J.E., Martenssen, A., Grandin, U., 2009. Cultivation practices and potato cultivars suitable for organic potato production. Potato Research. 52, 319-330.

Hannan, A., Arif, M., Ranjha, A.M., Abid, A., Fan, X.H., Li, Y.C., 2011. Using soil potassium adsorption and yield response models to determine potassium fertilizer rates for potato crop on a calcareous soil in Pakistan. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 42(6), 645-655.

Hoseini, S.M., Amini, Z., 2014. Effect of potassium sulfate on drought resistance of potato in Northern Fars province, Iran. Journal of Water Research in Agriculture. 28(2), 365-375. [In Persian with English Summary].

Jafari, M.A., Soltani, H., Rezvani, S.m., Ghadami Firouzabadi, A., 2017. Economic evaluation and comparison of sprinkler and drip irrigation systems in potato cultivation in Hamedan province. Journal of Water Research in Agriculture. 31(2), 195-205. [In Persian with English Summary].

Jamshidi, K., Mardani, R., Yousefi, A.R., 2015. Evaluation of yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays) influenced by plant density, planting pattern and date. Journal of Agricultural and Sustainable Production. 25(4), 59-69. [In Persian with English Summary].

Jefferies, R.A., MacKerron, D.K., 1993. Response of potato genotypes to drought. II. Leaf area index growth and yield. Annals of Applied Biology. 122, 105-122.

Irna, A., Mauromicale, G., 2006. Physiological and growth response to moderate water deficit of off-season potatoes in a Mediterranean enviorment. Agricaltural Water Management. 82, 193-209.

Kazemi, M., Banayan Aval, M., Ghorbani, R., 2016. Quantitative analysis of food security in Khorasan Razavi province based on potato production. Agronomy Journal (Pajouhesh & Sazandegi). 112, 63-75. [In Persian with English Summary].

Kholdbarin, B., Eslamzadeh, T., 2005. Mineral Nutrition of Organic Plants. Shiraz University Press. [In Persian].

Khorshidi Benam, M.B., Rahimzadeh Khoii, F., Mirhadi, M.J., Nour-Mohamadi, G., 2002. Study of drought stress effects in different growth stages on potato cultivars. Crop Sciences. 4 (1), 48-58. [In Persian with English Summary].

Lambers, H., Chapin, F.S., Pons, T.L., 1998. Plant Physiological Ecology. Springer. New York.

Masoudi, F., Zardashti, M.R., Abdollahi Mandoulakani, B., Rasoli Sadghiani, M.H., Nazarli, H., 2010. Effect of irrigation intervals on yield and plant characteristics of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences. 12(3), 265-278. [In Persian with English Summary].

Miri, Z., Asghari, Z., Penahi Kord Laghari, KH. B., 2009. Effect of Irrigation Regimes and Fertilizer Combinations on Yield of Two Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Cultivars in Freidan. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resource (Water and Soil Science). 12(46), 177-186. [In Persian with English Summary].

Moadab Shabestari, M., Mojtahedi, M., 1990. Physiology of Agricultural Plants. Publication of Tehran University, Tehran, Iran. 431p. [In Persian].

 Mohammadi, A., Faeznia, F., 2001. Effect of water stress on growth and yield of two potato cultivars. Research Report of Semnan Agricultural Research Center. [In Persian].

Moosavi, S.H., Faeznia, F., 2001. Effect of various contents of water and nitrogen fertilization on quantitative and qualitative characters of potato. 11th Congress of Irrigation and Drainage National Committee. 273-294. [In Persian].

Onder. S., Caliskan. M., Onder. D., Caliskan, S., 2005. Different irrigation methods and water stress effects on potato yield and yield components. Agricultural Water Management. 73, 73–86.

Passioura, J.B., 2007.The drought environment: physical, biological and agricultural perspectives. Journal of Experimental Botany. 58, 113-117.

Ramezani, M., Rezaei Sokht-Abandani, R., 2013. The effect of row spacing, plant population and planting pattern on yield and yield components of corn (SC 704) in double cropping. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology. 6(3), 249-264. [In Persian with English Summary].

Ramezanpour, M.R., Dastfal, M., Malakouti, M.J., 2008. Effect of potassium in reducing stress in wheat in Darab. Journal of Soil and Water Sciences. 22(1), 127-135. [In Persian].

Reeves, D.W., Mullins, G.L., 1995. Subsoiling and potassium placement effects on water relations and yield of cotton. Agronomy Journal. 87, 847-852.

Samaee, M., Modarres-Sanavy, S.A.L., Mousapour Gorji, A., Zand, E., 2016. Water use efficiency and water productivity in potato genotypes under water stress conditions. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 6(1), 15-30. [In Persian with English Summary].

Samaee, M., Modarres-Sanavy, S.A.L., Mousapour Gorji, A., Zand, E., 2017. The study of potato genotypes (Solanum tubersum L.) tolerance to water deficit stress. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science. 47(4), 527-540. [In Persian with English Summary].

Shahnazari, A., Liu, F., Andersen, M., Jacobsen, S.E., Jensen, C.R., 2007. Effects of partial root-zone drying on yield, tuber size and water use efficiency in potato under field conditions. Field Crops Research. 117–124.

Shock, C.C., 2004. Efficient Irrigation Scheduling. Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Oregon, USA.

Shojaei Noferest, K., 2014. Evaluation of Morpho-physiological Characteristics in Association with Water Stress Tolerance in Potato Cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L.). Phd Dissertation, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. [In Persian with English Summary].

Sobhani, A.1., Hamidi, H., 2013. Effect of different potassium levels on yield and growth indices of potato in Mashad climate condition. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology. 7(3), 341-356. [In Persian with English Summary].

Sobhani, A.R., Hamidi, H., 2014. Effects of different irrigation regims and amounts of potassium on qualitative characteristics of potato in Mashhad climatic conditions. Journal of Plant Production. 20(4), 65-81. [In Persian with English Summary].

Thornton, M.K., 2002. Effects of heat and water stress on the physiology of potatoes.University of Idaho Winter Commodity School Proc. 35, 79-81.

Trebejo, I., Midmore, D.J., 1990. Effect of water stress on potato growth, yield and water use in a hot and a cool tropical climate. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge. 114, 321–334.

Wang, F., Kang, Y., Liu, S., Hou, X., 2007. Effects of soil matric potential on potato growth under drip irrigation in the North China Plain. Agricultural Water Management. 88, 34– 4 2

Wells, R., Jburton, W., Kilen, T.C., 1993. Soybean growth and light interception, response to differing leaf and stem morphology. Crop Science. 33, 520-524.

Xiong, L., Wang, R.G., Mao, G., Koczan, J.M., 2006. Identification of drought tolerance determinants by genetic analysis of root response to drought stress and abscisic Acid. Plant Physiology.142 (3), 1065-74.

Yuan, B.Z., Nishiyama. S., Kang. Y., 2003. Effects of different irrigation regimes on the growth and yield of drip-irrigated potato. Agricultural Water Management. 63, 153–167.