تأثیر سطوح آبیاری و محلول‌پاشی (سولفات روی، اسید هیومیک و اسید سالیسیلیک) بر خصوصیات رشدی، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد چای ترش (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان و نخبگان، واحد آیت الله آملی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، آمل، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری آگرواکولوژی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد.

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثرات سطوح آبیاری و محلول‌پاشی (سولفات روی، اسید هیومیک و اسید سالیسیلیک) بر روی چای ترش آزمایشی در سال 1392 در مزرعه‌ای در سرابله از توابع شهرستان سیروان واقع در استان ایلام در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی به‌صورت اسپلیت پلات با سه تکرار اجرا شد. فاکتورهای آزمایشی شامل عامل اصلی آبیاری با سه سطح 100، 130 و 160 میلی‌متر تبخیر از تشتک کلاس A و عامل فرعی محلول‌پاشی با چهار سطح شامل اسید هیومیک، سولفات روی، اسید سالیسیلیک و شاهد بودند. نتایج به‌دست‌آمده در تیمار سطوح آبیاری نشان داد که بیشترین تعداد میوه در بوته در تیمار 100 میلی‌متر تبخیر به میزان 56.34 و کمترین تعداد میوه در بوته در تیمار 160 میلی‌متر تبخیر به میزان 45.27 به دست آمد. با محلول‌پاشی اسید سالیسیلیک بیشترینمیزان آنتوسیانین به میزان 0.26 (میکروگرم بر میلی‌لیتر) و کمترین میزان هم در حالت عدم محلول‌پاشی (شاهد) به میزان 0.2 (میکروگرم بر میلی‌لیتر) به دست آمد. نتایج به‌دست‌آمده در تیمار آبیاری نشان داد که بیشترین اسانس در تیمار 160 میلی‌متر تبخیر به میزان 2.21 درصد و کمترین اسانس در تیمار 100 میلی‌متر تبخیر به میزان 1.98 درصد به دست آمد. به‌طورکلی نتایج این تحقیق نشـان داد تنش خشکی سبب کاهش عملکرد کمی و کیفی در چای ترش می­شود. همچنین استفاده از محلول‌پاشی (اسید سالیسیلیک و سولفات روی و اسید هیومیک) در بهبود اثرات تنش خشکی و عملکرد کمی و کیفی گیاه دارویی چای ترش نقش بسزایی دارد. محلول‌پاشی سولفات روی به‌عنوان بهترین تیمار برای افزایش اسانس مشخص شد، از طرف دیگر سالیسیلیک اسید بیشترین تأثیر را بر افزایش وزن میوه داشت ولی ازآنجاکه اختلاف معنی‌داری با سولفات روی نداشت، لذا سولفات روی به‌عنوان بهترین تیمار مشخص شد.

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