بررسی عملکرد و اجزاء عملکرد زیست توده و برخی صفات فیزیولوژیکی دو گونه آویشن Thymus vulgaris و Thymus danensis در شرایط تنش خشکی و کاربرد کود دامی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته دکتری زراعت. گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند.

2 عضو هیئت‌علمی گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند.

چکیده

تنش خشکی اصلی­ترین عامل محدودکننده تولید محصولات کشاورزی است و رشد گیاهان دارویی و معطر را نیز کاهش می­دهد. یکی از مهم­ترین اثرات منفی تنش خشکی، کاهش دسترسی و جذب عناصر غذایی مختلف برای گیاه است. به‌منظور بررسی اثر سطوح مختلف تنش خشکی و کود دامی بر برخی صفات کمی و فیزیولوژیکی دو گونه آویشن باغی (Thymus vulgaris) و آویشن دنایی (Thymus daenensis)، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند در سال زراعی 1394 به اجرا درآمد. تیمارهای تنش آبیاری شامل: 100 درصد ظرفیت زراعی، 67 درصد ظرفیت زراعی و 33 درصد ظرفیت زراعی تیمارهای کود دامی:عدم مصرف و مصرف 30 تن در هکتار کود دامی و دو گونه آویشن باغی و دنایی بودند. نتایج نشان داد تنش خشکی باعث کاهش میزان صفات کلروفیل (a و b) شاخص SPAD، وزن خشک برگ، ساقه، گل و وزن خشک کل (TDM)، گردید اما میزان کاروتنوئید و آنتوسیانین تحت شرایط تنش خشکی در هر دو گونه موردبررسی افزایش پیدا کرد. کود دامی ضمن کاهش اثرات تنش خشکی موجب افزایش مقدار صفات مذکور به جزء کاروتنوئید و آنتوسیانین نسبت به شرایط عدم مصرف کود گردید. ازآنجایی‌که کود دامی باعث کاهش اثرات تنش خشکی و بهبود عملکرد گیاه گردید، می‌توان بیان کرد در سطوح بالای تنش خشکی استفاده از کود دامی از کارایی بیشتری در عملکرد گیاه آویشن برخورداراست ومصرف کودهای دامی در مدیریت منابع غذایی و رطوبتی در شرایط تنش خشکی جهت حصول عملکرد کمی مطلوب قابل توصیه است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


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