اثر تلقیح بذری قارچ Piriformospora indica و محلول پاشی پاکلوبوترازول بر مقاومت به تنش سرمازدگی در گیاه لوبیا سبز (Phaseoluse vulgaris L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه بیرجند.

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت، پژوهشکده ژنتیک و زیست‌فناوری کشاورزی طبرستان، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

3 دکتری زراعت، پژوهشکده ژنتیک و زیست‌فناوری کشاورزی طبرستان، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری.

4 دانشیار گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری.

چکیده

کاهش عملکرد ناشی از تنش سرمازدگی در گیاهان گرمسیری و نیمه­ گرمسیری اهمیت بررسی این تنش و تیمارهایی که می­توانند اثرات آن را کاهش دهند را نمایان می­سازد. به­ منظور بررسی اثر قارچ اندوفیت Piriformospora indicaو پاکلوبوترازول در القای تحمل به تنش سرمازدگی در گیاه لوبیا سبز (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)، آزمایشی گلخانه ­ای به ­صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه‌ی طرح کاملاً تصادفی در سه تکرار در گلخانه تحقیقاتی پژوهشکده­ ژنتیک و زیست‌فناوری کشاورزی طبرستان واقع در دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری اجرا شد. فاکتورهای آزمایشی شامل تنش سرمازدگی در سه سطح (شاهد، سه و شش روز تنش سرمازدگی با دمای پنج درجه سانتی­گراد)، تلقیح قارچی در دو سطح (بدون تلقیح و تلقیح قارچ P. indica) و محلول­ پاشی پاکلوبوترازول در سه سطح (صفر، 40 و 80 میلی­گرم در لیتر) بود. تلقیح قارچ در مرحله­ کاشت، محلول­ پاشی پاکلوبوترازول پنج و شش هفته و تنش سرمازدگی هشت هفته پس از کاشت اعمال گردید. نتایج نشان داد که تنش سرمازدگی به­ ویژه به مدت شش روزسبب کاهش وزن خشک اندام­های هوایی و میزان کلروفیل a، b و کاروتنوئید (به ترتیب حدود 19، 18 و 8 درصد) نسبت به تیمار شاهد گردید. در تمام سطوح تنش، تلقیح قارچ P. indicaوزن خشک بوته را افزایش داد به‌طوری‌که در تنش شدید، بیشترین تأثیر (افزایش 65 درصدی) را داشت. محلول­ پاشی پاکلوبوترازول با غلظت 40 میلی­گرم در لیتر، کلروفیل a، کاروتنوئید و محتوای کلروفیل برگ را به ترتیب 5، 9 و 7 درصد افزایش داد. همچنین محلول­ پاشی پاکلوبوترازول و تلقیح قارچ سبب کاهش نشت الکترولیت شد. درمجموع قارچ P. indica و پاکلوبوترازول در تعدیل اثرات تنش سرما و بهبود رشد گیاه لوبیا سبز اثر مؤثری داشتند.

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