مطالعه برهمکنش سایکوسل و کودهای زیستی بر عملکرد و برخی خصوصیات اگروفیزیولوژیک گندم در شرایط شوری خاک

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی.

2 استاد دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

3 دانشیار گروه زراعت، دانشگاه ارومیه.

چکیده

شوری خاک یکی از مهمترین فاکتورهای محدودکننده رشد و تولید گیاهان زراعی در مناطق خشک و نیمهخشک به دلیل افزایش استفاده از آب با کیفیت پایین برای آبیاری است. از این رو بهمنظور مطالعه برهمکنش سایکوسل و کودهای زیستی بر عملکرد و برخی خصوصیات اگروفیزیولوژیک گندم در شرایط شوری خاک، آزمایشی بهصورت فاکتوریل با طرح پایه بلوکهای کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشکده علوم کشاورزی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی در سال زراعی 1393 اجرا شد. فاکتورهای موردبررسی شامل شوری خاک در چهار سطح (صفر، 30، 60 و 90 میلیمولار در خاک با کلرید سدیم)، تلقیح بذر با کودهای زیستی در چهار سطح (عدم تلقیح بهعنوان شاهد، تلقیح با ازتوباکتر کروکوکوم استرین 5، سودوموناس پوتیدا استرین 186 و کاربرد توأم این دو) و محلولپاشی با سایکوسل در سه سطح (عدم مصرف، 600 و 1000 میلیگرم در لیتر) بود. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین عملکرد تک بوته (2.47 گرم) به محلولپاشی 1000 میلیگرم در لیتر سایکوسل و تلقیح بذر با ازتوباکتر و سودوموناس و کمترین آن (1.98 گرم) به عدم محلولپاشی سایکوسل و عدم تلقیح بذر مربوط بود. مقایسه میانگین ترکیب تیماری باکتری محرک رشد و سطوح شوری نشان داد بیشترین عملکرد تک بوته (2.65 گرم) به گیاهان تلقیح شده با ازتوباکتر و سودوموناس در شرایط عدم اعمال شوری و کمترین آن (1.74 گرم) به عدم تلقیح بذر در شوری 90 میلیمولار تعلق داشت. محلولپاشی 1000 میلیگرم در لیتر سایکوسل، تلقیح بذر با ازتوباکتر و سودوموناس و عدم اعمال شوری بیشترین طول سنبله (10.25 سانتیمتر)، وزن صد دانه (5.3 گرم) و طول دوره پر شدن دانه (43.26 روز) را داشت. بیشترین سرعت پر شدن دانه (0.002 گرم در روز) از تلقیح بذر با ازتوباکتر و سودوموناس در شرایط عدم اعمال شوری به دست آمد. بیشترین مقدار LAI در عدم محلولپاشی سایکوسل و تلقیح بذر با ازتوباکتر و سودوموناس در شرایط عدم اعمال شوری و کمترین مقدار آن در 65 روز پس از سبز شدن در محلولپاشی 1000 میلیگرم در لیتر سایکوسل و عدم پیش تیمار بذر با باکتریهای محرک رشد و در شوری 90 میلیمولار بهدقت آمد. سطوح شوری 30 و 60 میلیمولار اثرات کمی بر شاخص سبزینگی و هدایت روزنهای داشت. بالاترین سطح سایکوسل در تلقیح بذر با ازتوباکتر و سودوموناس، بالاترین شاخص سبزینگی (SPAD) و هدایت روزنهای را در عدم اعمال شوری نشان دادند. بهطوری کلی میتوان اظهار داشت که محلولپاشی 1000 میلیگرم در لیتر سایکوسل و تلقیح بذر با ازتوباکتر و سودوموناس عملکرد دانه را 20 درصد نسبت به شاهد افزایش داد و تلقیح توأم بذر با ازتوباکتر و سودوموناس حدود 15 درصد از کاهش عملکرد بهواسطه شوری را جبران کردند.

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