اثر تنش خشکی بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد 10 ژنوتیپ کلزا در شرایط آب‌وهوایی بیرجند

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند

2 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند

3 مربی گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند.

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی عملکرد و اجزای آن تحت تنش خشکی آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار و ده تیمار در دو شرایط آبیاری معمول و تنش خشکی در سال 1390-1389 در مزرعه پژوهشی دانشکده کشاورزی بیرجند به اجرا در آمد. صفات موردبررسی شامل تاریخ 50 درصد گلدهی، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک، وزن هزار دانه، شاخص برداشت، طول غلاف، تعداد دانه در غلاف، تعداد شاخه فرعی، تعداد غلاف در ساقه اصلی، تعداد غلاف در شاخه فرعی و تعداد کل غلاف در بوته بود. نتایج حاصل از مقایسه میانگین نشان داد که ژنوتیپ‌های هایولا 308 و لیکورد دارای بیشترین عملکرد دانه در شرایط معمول و ژنوتیپ‌های هایولا 308 و مودنا دارای بیشترین عملکرد دانه در شرایط تنش بودند. نتایج تجزیه همبستگی نشان داد که در شرایط معمول عملکرد دانه با عملکرد بیولوژیک و در شرایط تنش عملکرد دانه با عملکرد بیولوژیک، شاخص برداشت، تعداد غلاف در شاخه فرعی و تعداد کل غلاف در بوته در سطح احتمال 1 درصد همبستگی دارند. تجزیه رگرسیون گام‌به‌گام نشان داد که در شرایط معمول عملکرد بیولوژیک و در شرایط تنش شاخص برداشت تأثیرگذارترین عوامل بر عملکرد دانه بودند. تجزیه به عامل‌ها نشان داد که چهار عامل در شرایط معمول 85 درصد و در شرایط تنش 86/6 درصد از کل تغییرات واریانس را توجیه نمودند. به‌طور کل معلوم شد که ژنوتیپ‌ هایولا 308 و لیکورد دارای عملکرد دانه بالایی در هر دو شرایط آبیاری بود، اما ژنوتیپ مودنا تنها عملکرد دانه بالایی در شرایط تنش داشت.

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