پاسخ عملکرد دانه و بهره‌وری آب گندم و باقلا به آبیاری جزئی ریشه در کشت مخلوط

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه علمی کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران

2 استادیار گروه علمی کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر روش‌های آبیاری و الگوهای کاشت بر عملکرد دانه و کارآیی مصرف آب گندم و باقلا آزمایشی مزرعه‌ای به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در سال 1396 در شهرستان شادگان اجرا شد. عامل اول شامل روش آبیاری (آبیاری کامل و جزئی سیستم ریشه‌ای) و عامل دوم شامل الگوهای مختلف کاشت (کشت خالص گندم و باقلا، کشت مخلوط ردیفی یک در میان و کشت مخلوط روی یک ردیف) بود. آبیاری محدود عملکرد دانه گندم را 24.4 درصد کاهش داد. با آبیاری جزئی ریشه، وزن دانه، ارتفاع بوته و عملکرد بیولوژیک گندم در کشت خالص 4، 9 و 9 درصد، در کشت مخلوط روی ردیف‌های جداگانه 6، 13 و 12 درصد و در کشت مخلوط روی‌ یک ‌ردیف 9، 18 و 18 درصد کاهش پیدا کرد. در آبیاری جزئی ریشه، وزن هزار دانه، تعداد دانه در بوته و عملکرد دانه باقلا به ترتیب 17، 45.8 و 35.9 درصد کاهش یافت. عملکرد باقلا در کشت‌های مخلوط‌ روی ردیف‌های جداگانه و روی یک ردیف به ترتیب 88 و 62 درصد کشت خالص بود که نشان می‌دهد باقلا از کشت مخلوط منتفع شده است. بهره-وری آب با اعمال آبیاری محدود (27 درصد) و کشت مخلوط (59 درصد) بهبود پیدا کرد. نسبت برابری زمین در کشت مخلوط روی یک ردیف و روی ردیف‌های جداگانه به ترتیب 1.68 و 1.55 بود که به معنی سودمندی کشت مخلوط نسبت به کشت خالص می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


Adu, M.O., Yawson, D.O., Armah, F.A.,  Asare, P.A., 2018. Meta-analysis of crop yields of full, deficit and partial root zone drying irrigation. Agricultural Water Management. 197, 79-90.

Afsharmanesh, G.R., 2013. Effect of maize and potato intercropping on yield and yield components in early spring planting in Jiroft region. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences. 14(4), 333-345. [In Persian with English Summary].

Ahmadi, K., 2018. Agricultural statistics of 2016-17 growing season. Publication of Jahade-Agriculture. [In Persian].

Behdad, M., Paknejad, F., Vazan, S., Ardakani, M.R., Nasri, M., 2009. Effect of drought stress on yield and yield components at different growth stages of wheat cultivars. Journal of Crop Production Research. 1(2), 143-157. [In Persian with English Summary].

Due, T.S., Kang, S.Z., Zhang, J.H., Li, F.S., 2006. Yield and physiological responses of cotton to partial root-zone irrigation in the oasis of northwest China. Agricultural Water Management. 84, 41-52.

Emam, Y., Ranjbar, A.M., Bahrani, M.J., 2007. Evaluation of yield and yield components in wheat genotypes under post-anthesis drought stress. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources. 11(1), 317-327. (In Persian with English Summary).

Eskandari, H., Alizadeh-Amraie, A., Kazemi, K., 2019. Effect of drought stress caused by partial root zone irrigation on water use efficiency and grain yield of maize (Zea mays L.) and mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) in different intercropping planting patterns. Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences, 12(1), 387-399. [In Persian with English Summary].

Eskandari, H., Alizadeh-Amraie, A., 2016. Dry matter production and weeds growth in additive series of maize and cowpea intercropping in the consumption of some environmental resources under north Khuzestan climatic conditions. Research in Field Crops. 2(2): 46-57. [In Persian with English Summary].

Eskandari, H., Alizadeh-Amraie, A., 2018. Effect of planting pattern and alternate furrow irrigation on productivity of water and land under wheat and Persian clover intercropping. Journal of Water Research in Agriculture. 32, 179-187. [In Persian with English Summary].

Eskandari, H., Ghanbari, A., 2010. Influence of different intercropping pattern of corn and cowpea on light interception, forage yield and weed biomass. Production Science. 1(20), 49-57. [In Persian with English Summary].

Eskandari, H., Ghanbari, A., 2012. Evaluation of competition and complementarity of corn and cowpea intercropping for nutrient consumption. Journal of Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production. 2(21), 67-75. [In Persian with English Summary].

Eskandari, H., Javanmard, A., 2013. Evaluation of forage yield and quality in intercropping patterns of maize and cowpea. Journal of Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production. 4(23), 101-111. [In Persian with English Summary].

Eskandari, H., Kazemi, K., 2016. The ecological role and importance of faba bean in agronomical systems. Proceedings of the 3th national Conference on new findings in environmental and agricultural ecosystems. Tehran, Iran. Pp. 1-6.

Gholi Nejad, A., Yadavi, A., Movahhedi Dehnavi, M., Farajee, H., 2018. The effect of additive intercropping on yield and yield components of sweet corn and mung bean and wed biomass. Journal of Agroecology. 10(1), 120-134. [In Persian with English Summary].

Gholinezhad, E., Ayenehband, A., Hassanzadeh Ghourt tapeh, A., Noormohammadi, G., Bernousi, I., 2010. Effect of irrigation regime on water and nitrogen use efficiency in sunflower at various levels of n-application and plant density under Urmia climate conditions. Journal of Soil and Water Science. 1(20), 27-45. [In Persian with English Summary].

Golchin, E., Zeinali, E., Pouri, K., 2013. Studying grain and green pod yield, and grain yield components as affected by inter- and intra- row spacing in faba bean, Barakat cultivar. Iranian Journal of Pulses Research. 4, 9-20. [In Persian with English Summary].

Hamzei, J., Ghamari Rahim, N., 2014. Evaluation of corn-soybean intercropping advantages using agronomic and weed control efficiency indices. Journal of Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production. 3(24), 61-74. [In Persian with English Summary].

Hu, T., Yuan, L., Wang, J., Shaozhong, K., Fusheng, L., 2010. Antioxidation responses of maize roots and leaves to partial root zone irrigation. Agricultural Water Management. 98, 164-171.

Javanmard, A., Rostami, A., Nouraein, M., Gharekhany, G., 2016. Agronomical, ecological and economical evaluation of wheat-chickpea intercropping under rainfed condition of Maragheh. Journal of Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production. 1(26), 19-37. [In Persian with English Summary].

Kahraryan, B., Farahvash, F., Mohammadi, S., Mirshekari, B., Rashidi, V., 2018. Evaluation of barley and vetch intercropping. Journal of Crop Echophysiology. 12(4), 651-670. [In Persian with English Summary].

Kang, S.Z., Zhang, J. H., 2004. Controlled alternate partial root zone irrigation: its physiological consequences and impact on water use efficiency. Journal of Experimental Botany. 55, 2437-2446.

Katerji, N., Mastrorilli, M., Lahmer, F.Z., Maalouf, F., Oweis, F., 2011. Faba bean productivity in saline-drought conditions. European Journal of Agronomy. 35, 2-12.

Khatamipour, M., Asgharipour, M.R., Sirousmehr, A., 2014. Intercropping benefits of foxtail millet with mung bean as influenced by application of different manure levels. Journal of Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production. 3(24), 75-86. [In Persian with English Summary].

Kiyanbakht, M., Zeinali, E., Siahmarguee, A., Sheikh, F., Pouri, G.M., 2015. Effect of sowing date on grain yield and yield components and green pod yield of three faba bean cultivars in Gorgan climatic conditions. Journal of Crop Production. 1(8), 99-119. [In Persian with English Summary].

Kriedemann, P., Goodwin, I., 2003. Irrigation insights- No 4: regulated-deficit irrigation and partial root-zone drying- an information package on two new irrigation methods for high-input horticulture. National Program for Sustainable Irrigation, Canberra, Australia.

Koocheki, A.R., Fallahpour, F., Khorramdel, S., Jafari, L., 2014. Evaluation of wheat and rapeseed intercropping effect on yield and yield component and density and diversity of weeds. Journal of Agroecology. 6(1), 11-20. [In Persian].

Li, F.S., Yu, J.M., Nong, M.I., Kang, S.Z., Zhang, J.H., 2010. Partial root-zone irrigation enhanced soil enzyme activities and water use of maize under different ratios inorganic to organic nitrogen fertilizers. Agricultural Water Management. 97, 231-239.

Lithourgidis, A.S, Vasilakoglou, I.B, Dordas, C.A., Yiakoulaki, M.D., 2006. Forage yield and quality of common vetch mixtures with oat and triticale in two seeding ratios. Field Crops Research. 99, 106-113.

Nasrollah-zadeh, S., Ghassemi-Golezani, K., Raey, Y., 2011. Effect of shading on rate and duration of grain filling and yield of faba bean cultivars. Journal of Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production. 3(21), 47-56. [In Persian with English Summary].

Nasrollahzadeh, S., Ghassemi-Golezani, K., Javanshir, A., Shakiba, M.R., Mohammadi, S.A., 2007. Effects of shade stress on ground cover and grain yield of faba bean. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 5(1), 337-340. [In Persian with English Summary].

Sadrabadi Haghighi, R., Koocheki, A.R., 2004. Intercropping of wheat and hairy vetch with complementary irrigation in a low input dry land farming system. Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2(9), 105-118. [In Persian].

Sadras, V.O., 2009. Does partial root-zone drying improve irrigation water productivity in the field? A meta-analysis. Irrigation Science. 27, 183–190.

Tang, L.S., Li, Y., Zhang, J., 2005. Physiological and yield responses of cotton under partial root-zone irrigation. Field Crops Research. 94 (2), 214–223.

Wang, Z., Zhao, X., Chen, X., 2015. Effects of water limitation on yield advantage and water use in wheat/maize strip intercropping. European Journal of Agronomy. 71, 149-159.

Willey, R.W., 1979. Intercropping: Its Importance and Research Needs. Part 1, Competition and Yield Advantages. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux Press., Farmhand.

Yang, C., Huang, G., Chai, Q., Luo, Z., 2011. Water use and yield of wheat/maize intercropping under alternate irrigation in the oasis field of northwest China. Field Crops Research. 124, 426-432.

Yechun, L., Zhaohai, Z., Changzhong, R., Yuegao, H., 2012. Water use efficiency and physiological responses of oat under alternate partial root zone irrigation in the semiarid areas of northeast China. Procedia Engineering. 28, 33-42.