اثر هدایت الکتریکی آب آبیاری و روش‌های مصرف آهن و روی بر عملکرد و ترکیب شیمیایی ذرت علوفه‌ای در یک خاک آهکی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان فارس، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، زرقان،

2 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد زراعت، واحد ارسنجان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، ارسنجان، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه کشاورزی، واحد فیروزآباد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، فیروزآباد، ایران

چکیده

تنش شوری و کمبود عناصر غذایی کم‌مصرف از مهم‌ترین عوامل محدود کننده تولید کمی و کیفی ذرت علوفه‌ای در خاک‌های آهکی مناطق مرکزی ایران می‌باشند. از این‌رو به‌منظور بررسی اثر روش‌های کاربرد آهن و روی بر عملکرد و ترکیب شیمیایی ذرت علوفه‌ای تحت شوری آب آبیاری، پژوهشی مزرعه‌ای در سال 1394 به صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در ارسنجان فارس اجرا شد. تیمارها ترکیبی از 3 سطح هدایت الکتریکی آب آبیاری شامل 2، 4 و 6 (dS m-1) و 12 روش کاربرد کودهای سولفات روی، سولفات آهن و کلات آهن بودند. نتایج نشان داد افزایش هدایت الکتریکی آب آبیاری از 2 به 6 (dS m-1) منجر به کاهش 5/12 درصدی عملکرد علوفه‌تر و کاهش 43 درصدی محتوای عناصر غذایی همانند پتاسیم، فسفر، کلسیم، مس، منگنز، آهن و روی در علوفه ذرت شد. بیشترین عملکرد علوفه‌تر ذرت (Ton ha-1 77/71) در شرایط آبیاری با هدایت الکتریکی 2 (dS m-1) و مصرف خاکی کلات آهن به‌علاوه محلول‌پاشی با سولفات روی حاصل شد. در آبیاری 4 و 6 (dS m-1)، بیشترین عملکرد علوفه‌تر با کاربرد خاکی و توأم سولفات روی و کلات آهن به‌علاوه بذرمالی بذور با سولفات آهن به دست آمد. با افزایش سطح تنش، کاربرد ترکیبی عناصر غذایی آهن و روی در مقایسه با کاربرد جداگانه موثرتر واقع شد و در این شرایط عملکرد کمی و کیفی محصول ذرت علوفه‌ای بیش از 13 درصد افزایش یافت. به-طورکلی، در یک خاک آهکی با انتخاب روش مناسب کوددهی در شرایط تنش شوری ضمن حفظ پتانسیل عملکرد محصول ذرت علوفه‌ای می‌توان تقاضا برای آب غیر شور را نیز کاهش داد.

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