تأثیر قارچ‌های مایکوریزا بر خصوصیات رشدی و جذب عناصر غذایی گیاه دارویی جعفری مکزیکی (.Tagetes minuta L) تحت تنش شوری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشیار گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تاثیر قارچ‌های مایکوریزا بر خصوصیات رشدی و جذب عناصر جعفری مکزیکی (.Tagetes minuta L) تحت تنش شوری آزمایش گلدانی بصورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی در 3 تکرار در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد انجام شد. فاکتور اول کاربرد قارچ میکوریزا در سه سطح (عدم تلقیح، Rhizophagus intradices و Funnetiformis mosseae) و فاکتور دوم شامل 4 سطح شوری آب آبیاری (0، 40، 80 و 120 میلی‌مولار کلرید سدیم) ‌بود. نتایج نشان داد کلیه صفات رشدی در اثر تنش شوری به شدت کاهش یافتند و کاربرد مایکوریزا باعث تعدیل اثرات مضر شوری و مقاومت گیاه به شوری گردید. بیشترین تعداد گره (12.89)، قطر ساقه (7.49 میلی‌متر)، ارتفاع بوته (65.75 سانتی‌متر) و تعداد شاخه جانبی (23.33) در تیمار بدون تنش شوری همراه با کاربرد قارچ مایکوریزا رایزوفاجوس اینترادیکس حاصل شد. با افزایش شوری میزان فسفر، کلسیم، سدیم، کلر و نیتروژن برگ افزایش و در مقابل میزان پتاسیم، منگنز، روی و آهن آن کاهش یافت. بیشترین میزان فسفر برگ (8.5 میلی‌گرم بر گرم وزن خشک برگ) در بالاترین سطح تنش شوری و کاربرد قارچ فونتی فورمیس موسه‌آ، بیشترین میزان سدیم (33/123 میلی‌گرم بر گرم وزن خشک برگ) و کلر برگ (63.09 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم وزن خشک برگ) در تیمار 120 میلی‌مولار شوری و بدون کاربرد مایکوریزا مشاهده شد. این در حالی‌است که بیشترین میزان پتاسیم برگ (6.23 میلی‌گرم بر گرم وزن خشک برگ) در تیمار فاقد شوری و بدون کاربرد قارچ‌های مایکوریزا، بیشترین میزان منگنز برگ (143.91 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم وزن خشک برگ) در تیمار 40 میلی‌مولار شوری و کاربرد موسه‌آ و بیشترین میزان روی برگ (7.12 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم وزن خشک برگ) در تیمار فاقد شوری و کاربرد موسه‌آ ثبت شد. نتایج حاصل از این آزمایش نشان داد که شوری سبب کاهش میزان رشد و کاربرد مایکوریزا در این شرایط باعث بهبود رشد و جذب عناصرغذایی شد.استفاده از قارچ‌های مایکوریزا بخصوص فونتی­فورمیس موسه­آ به ­عنوان یک راهکار مناسب برای افزایش مقاومت به شوری در گیاه جعفری مکزیکی توصیه می­گردد.

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