بررسی اثر برهم‌کنش کودهای زیستی و شیمیایی در رژیم های مختلف رطوبتی بر ویژگی‌های مورفوفیزیولوژیک و عملکرد دانه گندم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد زاهدان، گروه کشاورزی، زاهدان، ایران

2 استادیار، فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد زاهدان، گروه کشاورزی، زاهدان، ایران

3 دانشیار پژوهش بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی سیستان، سازمان تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی، زابل

4 استادیار، اگرو اکولوژی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد زاهدان، گروه کشاورزی، زاهدان، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر کودهای زیستی در رژیم‌های مختلف رطوبتی، بر ویژگی­های مورفوفیزیولوژیک و عملکرد دانه گندم رقم ارگ آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‌های خردشده بر پایه طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار طراحی گردید که در سال زراعی 96-95 در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی زهک–زابل اجرا شد. رژیم آبیاری در سه سطح شامل: آبیاری پس از 45% (شاهد)، 65% تخلیه رطوبتی از خاک (تنش متوسط) و 85% تخلیه رطوبتی از خاک (تنش شدید)؛ به‌عنوان کرت‌ اصلی و منابع کود زیستی به همراه کود شیمیایی در هفت سطح شامل: کاربرد کود شیمیایی عرف منطقه (شاهد) ، کاربرد کود زیستی ازتوباکتر به همراه کود شیمیایی عرف منطقه، کود زیستی ازتوباکتر به همراه 50% کود شیمیایی عرف، کود زیستی فسفا باکتر به همراه کود شیمیایی عرف منطقه، کود زیستی فسفاباکتر به همراه 50% کود شیمیایی مطابق شاهد، کود زیستی ازتوباکتر و فسفا باکتر به همراه کود شیمیایی عرف منطقه، کود زیستی ازتو باکتر و فسفاباکتر به همراه 50% کود شیمیایی عرف منطقه به‌عنوان کرت‌ فرعی بودند. نتایج نشان داد، اثر متقابل تنش خشکی و کود زیستی بر عملکرد دانه در سطح احتمال 1% معنی‌دار بود. به‌طوری‌که در تنش شدید رژیم رطوبتی، کودهای زیستی (با میانگین 6237 کیلوگرم در هکتار) نسبت به شاهد 8/38 درصد افزایش داشته است. همچنین این بهبود و افزایش در وزن هزار دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک و شاخص برداشت به ترتیب 27.6 و 17.8 و 29.6 درصد نسبت به شاهد شده است. به‌طورکلی، نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که آبیاری تحت شرایط کمبود رطوبت در همه مراحل رشد با استفاده از کودهای زیستی ازتوباکتر و فسفاباکتر تأثیر مثبت در بهبود عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک، شاخص برداشت و شاخص کلروفیل برگ داشتند و اثرات منفی رژیم رطوبتی را بهبود بخشیدند.

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