اثر قارچ مایکوریزا و باکتری‌های محرک رشد (PGPR) بر ظرفیت آنتی اکسیدانی و برخی صفات مورفوفیزیولوژیک همیشه‌بهار دارویی (.Calendula officinalis Linn) تحت تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم باغبانی و مهندسی فضای سبز دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 پژوهشکده علوم گیاهی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر کاربرد باکتری‌های محرک رشد گیاه و قارچ مایکوریزا تحت شرایط تنش خشکی در زمستان و ‌بهار سال‌های 1396-1397 آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملا تصادفی با 4 تکرار در گلخانه تحقیقاتی گروه علوم باغبانی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد انجام شد. عامل اول استفاده از کود زیستی در 8 سطح (شامل ترکیب های مختلفی از باکتری های سودوموناس، ازتوباکتر و قارچ مایکوریزا) و عامل دوم تنش خشکی در دو سطح (100 و 50 % ظرفیت زراعی) بود. نتایج نشان داد که با کاهش ظرفیت زراعی خاک از 100 به 50 درصد ظرفیت زراعی ارتفاع گیاه، تعداد برگ، تعداد گل، قطر گل، وزن تر اندام هوایی و ریشه، تعداد شاخه جانبی، شاخص سبزینگی و محتوی نسبی آب برگ نسبت به تیمار شاهد کاهش یافت. همچنین بالاترین مقادیر ظرفیت آنتی اکسیدانی گیاهان مورد آزمایش، تحت هر دو شرایط رطوبتی خاک در تیمارهای Ps، M+Az و Ps+Az بدست آمد. از طرفی با کاربرد باکتری Pseudomonas fluorescens به تنهایی و یا در ترکیب با قارچ مایکوریزا در شرایط اعمال تنش (50% ظرفیت زراعی) صفات رشدی در گیاه مثل تعداد برگ، تعداد گل، قطر گل، تعداد ساقه جانبی و شاخص سبزینگی بهبود یافتند. تعداد گل در تیمار کاربرد باکتری Pseudomonas fluorescens در شرایط 100% ظرفیت زراعی خاک برابر 18.50 بود که نسبت به تیمار شاهد (عدم استفاده از کود‌های زیستی در 100% ظرفیت زراعی) 77% افزایش داشت. بیشترین شاخص سبزینگی در تیمار کاربرد توام مایکوریزا و باکتری Azotobactore chroococcum در شرایط رطوبتی 50% ظرفیت زراعی (33.92) حاصل شد. در نهایت می‌توان بیان کرد کاربرد قارچ Pseudomonas fluorescens در خاک به تنهایی یا توام با قارچ مایکوریزا در گیاه همیشه بهار در شرایط تنش خشکی قابلیت بهبود رشد گیاه را داشته و منجر به افزایش کارایی گیاه در شرایط تنش خشکی می‌شود.

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