ارزیابی صفات بیوشیمیایی و زراعی ارقام کنجد تحت اثر کاربرد نانو کود فسفر و کیتوزان در شرایط قطع آبیاری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری رشته زراعت دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد دامغان، دامغان

2 گروه کشاورزی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد دامغان، دامغان

3 دانشیار و عضو هیئت‌علمی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شاهد، تهران

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر قطع آبیاری و محلول‌پاشی با کیتوزان و نانوکود فسفر بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد و کیفیت دانه ارقام کنجد بعد از کشت گندم، آزمایشی به صورت اسپلیت‌پلات فاکتوریل در سه تکرار در مزرعه پژوهشی دانشگاه شاهد تهران در سال‌های زراعی 95- 1394 و 96-1395 انجام شد. عوامل آزمایش شامل قطع آبیاری در سه سطح براساس مراحل فنولوژیکی، عدم تنش (آبیاری نرمال)، قطع آبیاری در 50 درصد دانه‌بندی و گلدهی در کرت‌های اصلی و محلول‌پاشی در چهار سطح شامل عدم محلول‌پاشی، نانو کلات فسفر (دو در هزار)، کیتوزان (سه در هزار) و ترکیب نانو کلات فسفر+کیتوزان و دو رقم اولتان و ناز تک شاخه کنجد در کرت‌های فرعی بودند. نتایج نشان داد بیشترین وزن هزار دانه در سال اول آزمایش و رقم اولتان (3.10 گرم) به دست آمد. بیشترین عملکرد دانه در سال دوم، تحت شرایط بدون تنش و تنش متوسط و محلول‌پاشی با نانو کلات فسفر به‌تنهایی یا در ترکیب کیتوزان (به ترتیب 2821.8، 2572.4، 2808.4 و 2904.5 کیلوگرم در هکتار) مشاهده شد. به‌طور کلی در بین سطوح مختلف تنش خشکی، تنش شدید (آبیاری تا 50 درصد گلدهی) منجر به کاهش معنادار میانگین عملکرد دانه (بیش از 50 درصد) گردید، ولی تنش خشکی متوسط (آبیاری تا 50 درصد دانه‌بندی) به‌خصوص در شرایط استفاده از ترکیبات کیتوزان و نانو کود فسفر دارای بالاترین عملکرد دانه (5/2904 کیلوگرم در هکتار) بود. درصد روغن دانه در سال دوم تحت شرایط عدم تنش دارای بالاترین میانگین (57.02 درصد) بود. در مقایسه بین دو رقم، بیشترین و کمترین عملکرد روغن به ترتیب در رقم ناز و اولتان (858.4 و 731.7 کیلوگرم در هکتار) مشاهده شد. میزان اسیدهای چرب اشباع (پالمیتیک و استئاریک) در تیمار عدم محلولپاشی در رقم اولتان دارای بالاترین میانگین (به ترتیب 12.5 و 9.3) و برعکس، کمترین محتوای اسید چرب لینولئیک (24.88 درصد) در این تیمار مشاهده شد. به‌طورکلی استفاده از نانو کود فسفر به همراه کیتوزان باعث افزایش کمی و کیفی عملکرد دانه کنجد گردید و منجر به افزایش شاخص­های رشدی و کیفی در شرایط تنش خشکی شد.

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