بررسی عملکرد و برخی ویژگی‌‌های فیزیولوژیک ارقام کلزا در شرایط تنش خشکی آخر فصل و کاشت تأخیری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود

2 دانشیار دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود

3 استاد مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر کاشت تأخیری و تنش خشکی آخر فصل بر صفات عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد، اسیدهای چرب اشباع و غیر‌اشباع، به منظور بررسی اثر تاریخ کاشت و تنش خشکی بر صفات عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد، اسیدهای چرب اشباع و غیر‌اشباع، میزان روغن و گلوکوزینولات دانه و محتوای پرولین کلزا آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل اسپلیت‌پلات در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در دو سال زراعی 95-1393 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی موسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر کرج اجرا گردید. تیمارهای مورد بررسی شامل تاریخ کاشت در دو سطح شامل: 20 مهر (کشت معمول) و 5 آبان (کشت تأخیری)، آبیاری در دو سطح شامل: آبیاری کامل (شاهد) و تنش خشکی (قطع آبیاری از مرحله خورجین‌دهی) و نیز ارقام و هیبریدهای پاییزه کلزا شامل:Neptune, Elvise, Okapi, Tassilo, GKH0224, GKH2624, GKH3705 بودند. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد، که تاریخ کاشت، آبیاری و رقم بر تمام صفات به غیر از اسید اکوزنوئیک معنی‌دار بود. به تأخیر انداختن تاریخ کاشت، تعداد خورجین در بوته، وزن هزاردانه، عملکرد دانه، میزان روغن دانه، اکوزنوئیک اسید و پرولین را کاهش ولی میزان گلوکوزینولات دانه و اسید بهنیک را افزایش داد. بیش‌ترین میزان روغن دانه (6/45 درصد) در حالت آبیاری کامل و کشت معمول و کم‌ترین آن ( 42.2درصد) در شرایط قطع آبیاری در مرحله خورجین‌دهی و کشت تأخیری به‌دست آمد. بالاترین میزان پرولین (21.59 میلی‌گرم بر گرم وزن تر) در کشت معمول و از رقم GKH3705 به‌دست آمد. از نظر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد، محتوای روغن دانه، اسیدهای چرب اشباع و غیر‌اشباع و میزان گلوکوزینولات، رقم GKH3705 مناسب‌ترین بود. با توجه به نتایج، به نظر می‌رسد تاریخ کاشت 20 مهر و رقم GKH3705 در هر دو شرایط بدون تنش و تنش خشکی می‌تواند به عنوان بهترین تیمار برای سودمندی تولید کلزا در منطقه کرج پیشنهاد گردد.

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