تجزیه عملکرد دانه و اجزای آن در گندم نان و ارتباط آن ها با طول کلئوپتیل تحت شرایط کم‌آبی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری رشته اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

2 عضو هیئت‌علمی گروه اصلاح نباتات و بیوتکنولوژی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

3 عضو هیئت‌علمی گروه زراعت دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه لرستان

10.22077/escs.2019.1893.1457

چکیده

این تحقیق به‌منظور بررسی شاخص تحمل به کم‌آبی، برآورد تنوع ژنتیکی برای طول کلئوپتیل و بررسی نقش طول کلئوپتیل در نحوه واکنش به تنش انجام شد. مقایسه میزان عملکرد و اجزای آن در ژنوتیپ‌های گندم نان مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشک ایران انجام گرفت. در این تحقیق 50 ژنوتیپ در شرایط تنش آبی و عادی بر پایه طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار موردمطالعه قرار گرفتند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که بین ژنوتیپ‌ها در هر دو شرایط محیطی ازلحاظ کلیه صفات به‌جز صفت تعداد سنبله در واحد سطح اختلاف معنی‌داری وجود داشت و دامنه تغییرات برای کلیه صفات دارای طیف نسبتاً بالایی بود که نشان‌دهنده تنوع بالا بین ژنوتیپ‌های موردمطالعه بود. میانگین تمام صفات به‌جز وزن سنبله اصلی و طول ریشک، در شرایط معمولی بیش‌تر از شرایط تنش رطوبتی بود. طول کلئوپتیل ژنوتیپ‌ها بین 2.41 تا 4.91 سانتی‌متر بود. در بین نه صفت موردمطالعه، تعداد شش صفت دچار کاهش رشد ناشی از اعمال تنش خشکی گردیدند و از این میان کاهش تعداد سنبله، عملکرد دانه در سطح و وزن سنبله از همه قابل‌توجه‌تر بود. سه ژنوتیپ شیرودی، اروم و پاستور متحمل‌ترین و ژنوتیپ استار دارای کمترین مقدار STI نسبت به تنش کم‌آبی بود. برای بررسی ارتباط صفات و شاخص مقاومت به خشکی با طول کلئوپتیل، ضریب همبستگی محاسبه گردید. بیشترین همبستگی مثبت در هر دو شرایط محیطی (تنش و بدون تنش) میان صفات ارتفاع بوته با طول کلئوپتیل به ترتیب به میزان 0.56 و 0.43 و تعداد سنبله با طول کلئوپتیل به ترتیب به میزان 0.16 و 0.165 بود. همبستگی طول کلئوپتیل تحت شرایط تنش و بدون تنش با شاخص STI منفی بود. بین عملکرد دانه و طول کلئوپتیل همبستگی منفی و غیر معنی‌داری وجود داشت. ضریب همبستگی طول کلئوپتیل با برخی صفات کمیتی در شرایط تنش نسبت به شرایط عدم تنش کم‌آبی ازنظر اندازه و جهت تغییر نمود که ناشی از نقش مؤثر طول کلئوپتیل در موازنه گیاه و شرایط رطوبتی است

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