تأثیر تنش آبی بر اندام‌های هوایی، ریشه و عملکرد گندم دوروم (.Triticum durum Desf) در کشت مخلوط ژنوتیپ‌ها

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد دانشکده کشاورزی داراب - دانشگاه شیراز

2 استادیار بخش اگرواکولوژی دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی داراب - دانشگاه شیراز

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر تنش آبی بر اندام‌های هوایی، ریشه و عملکرد گندم دوروم در کشت مخلوط ژنوتیپ‌ها، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با 3 تکرار در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی داراب، دانشگاه شیراز در سال 97-96 اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی با استفاده از مخلوط ارقام و لاین‌ها شامل: شبرنگ، بهرنگ و لاین‌های DW-92-4 و DW-94-14 به‌صورت کشت خالص و کشت مخلوط ژنوتیپ‌ها در ترکیب‌های دوتایی و چهارتایی بودند. تیمار تنش شامل دو سطح (آبیاری نرمال و تنش آبی) بر مخلوط ژنوتیپ‌ها اعمال شد. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که اثر تنش و سیستم‌های کشت و اثر متقابل تنش×سیستم‌های کشت بر عملکرد دانه معنی‌دار بود (p≤0.01). مقایسه میانگین اثر متقابل نشان داد که بیشترین عملکرد دانه مربوط به ترکیب کشت مخلوط شبرنگ + بهرنگ (8.75 گرم در بوته) در شرایط آبیاری نرمال و کمترین آن نیز مربوط به ترتیب کشت خالص DW-92-4 با میانگین 1.1 گرم در بوته که با تیمار کشت مخلوط DW-92-4 و DW-94-14 با میانگین 1.20 گرم، کشت خالص بهرنگ با میانگین 1.25 گرم، کشت مخلوط بهرنگ+DW-92-4 با میانگین 1.25، کشت خالص شبرنگ با میانگین 45/1، کشت خالص DW-94-14 با میانگین 50/1، کشت مخلوط چهار ژنوتیپ DW-92-4 و DW-94-14+شبرنگ+بهرنگ با میانگین 1.75، کشت مخلوط شبرنگ+ بهرنگ با میانگین 2.35 (در شرایط تنش آبی) و کشت مخلوط شبرنگ+DW-94-14 با میانگین 1.45 (در شرایط آبیاری نرمال) اختلاف آماری معنی‌داری نداشت. بالاترین همبستگی مثبت و معنی‌دار بین عملکرد دانه با ارتفاع گیاه و وزن ‌هزار دانه و طول برگ به ترتیب **r=0.443 و **0.434=r و *0.312=r مشاهده شد. به‌طورکلی، نتایج به‌دست‌آمده نشان‌دهنده این است که کشت مخلوط دو ژنوتیپ شبرنگ+بهرنگ در شرایط آبیاری نرمال نسبت به کشت خالص یک ژنوتیپ در شرایط تنش آبی از عملکرد دانه بالاتری برخوردار بود. همچنین، بیشترین عملکرد در حالت تنش آبی به کشت مخلوط شبرنگ+ DW-92-4 اختصاص یافت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


Afzali, S., 2014.Effects of genetic diversity and nitrogen fertilizers on wheat competitiveness in wheat farming system. M.Sc. Dissertation, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Shiraz, Iran. [In Persian].

Board, J., 2001. Reduced lodging for soybean in low plant population is related to light quality. Crop Science. 41, 379-384.

Caliskon, S., Arsalan, M., Vermis, I., 2007. The Effects of row spacing on yield and yield components of full season and double-cropped soybean. Agriculture. 31, 47-154.

De Kroon, H., 2007. Ecology - How do roots interact? Science. 318, 1562- 1563.

Dardanelli, J.L., Ritchie, J.T., Calmon, M., Andriani, J.M., Collino, D.J., 2004. An empirical model for root water uptake. Field Crops Res. 87, 59-71.

Ebadi, A., Sajed, K., Asgari, R., 2007. Effects of water deficit on dry matter remobilization and grain filling trend in three spring barley genotypes. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment. 5(2), 359-362.

Ezzat Ahmadi, M., Noormohammadi, Gh., Ghodsi, M., Kafi, M., 2010. Effect of moisture stress and potassium iodine spraying on agronomic characteristics and grain yield of bread wheat genotypes. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Researches. 82, 177-186. [In Persian with English Summary].

Fagam, A.S., Bununu, A.M., Buba, U.M., 2007.Path coefficient analysis of the components of grain yield in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences. 2, 310-316.

Farahani, A., Arzani, A., 2006. A study of genetic diversity of varieties and F1 hybrids using agronomic characteristics of durum wheat. Journal of Agricultural Science. 4, 341-354. In Persian with English Summary].

Faramarzi, F., 2014.The effect of crop diversity on the weed population under the influence of nitrogen levels. MSc dissertation, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Shiraz, Iran. [In Persian with English Summary].

Fernandez Aparicio, M., Sillero, J.C., Rubials, D., 2007. Intercropping with cereals reduces infection be Orobanche crenata in legumes. Crop Pro. 26, 1166-1172.

Finckh, M.R., Gacek, E.S., Goyeau., 2000. Cereal variety and species mixtures in practice, with emphasise on disease resistantce. Agronomy Journal. Vol. 20, 813-837.

Finckh, M., Gacek, E., Goyeau, H., Lannou, C., Merz, U., et al., 2000. Cereal variety and species mixtures in practice, with emphasis on disease resistance. Agronomie, EDP Sciences. 20(7), 813-837.

Forster, B.P., Ellis, R.P., Newton, A.C., Morris, W.L., Moir, J., Lyon, J., Keith, R., Tuberosa, R., Talame, V., This, D., Teulat, B., El-Enein, RA., Bahri, H., BenSalem, M., 2000. Stable yield in mediterranean barley: application of molecular technologies in improving drought tolerance and mildew resistance. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Barley Genetics Symposium, Adelaide, 22-27 October, pp 273-274.

Garcia del Moral, L.F., Rharrabti, Y., Villegas, D., Royo, C., 2003. Evaluation of grain yield and its components in durum wheat under mediterranean conditions: An ontogenic approach. Agron J. 95, 266-274.

Gebeyehou, G., Knott, D.R., Baker, R.J., 1982. Relationships among duration of grain yield in durum wheat cultivars. Crop Sci. 22, 287-290.

Gonzalez, A., Martin, I., Ayerbe, L., 2007. Response of barley genotypes to terminal soil moisture stress: phenology, growth and yield. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 58(1), 29-37.

Guendouz, A., Djoudi, M., Guessoum, S., Maamri, K., Hannachi, A., Fellahi, Z., Hafsi, M., 2014. Genotypic and phenotypic correlations among yield and yield components in durum wheat (Triticum durum) under different water treatments in eastern Algeria. Annual Research & Review in Biology. 4(2), 432-442.

Hakala, K., Jauhiainen, L., Himanen, S.J., Rotter, R., Salo, T., Kahiluoto, H., 2012. Sensitivity of barley varieties to weather in Finland. Journal Science Agriculture. 150, 145-160.

Hosseinpor, T., Siadat, A., Mamaghani, R., 2001. Study correlation of physiological characteristics of ten wheat genotypes with grain yield due to path analysis under rainfed condition of Kohdasht region. Azad University of Dezfol Branch, 156p.

Kaltsikes, P.J., Lee, P.J., 1975.Inter-relationships among yield and related agronomic attributes in durum wheat. In: G. T. Scarascia Mugnozza (Ed.), Proceeding of the symposium on genetics and breeding of durum wheat. P. 285-296. University of Barri, Bari.

Khan, A.J., Azam, F., Ali, A., Tariq, M., Amin. M., 2005. Inter-Relationship and path co-efficient analysis for biometric traits in drought tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Asian Journal of Plant Sciences. 4, 540-543.

Malezieux, E., Crozat, Y., Dupraz, C., Laurns, M., Makowski, D., Hozier Lafontaine, B., Rapidel, S., de Tourdonuet, Valantin-Morison, M., 2009. Mixing plant species in cropping systems: Concepts, tools and models. Agronomy Sustainable Development. 29, 43-62.

Moghaddam, M., Ehdaie, B., Waines, J.G., 1997.Genetic variation and interrelationships of agronomic characters in landraces of bread wheat from southeastern IRAN. Euphytica, 95, 3611-369.

Mohammadi, M., 1998. Study correlation between agronomic characters and wheat yield under rainfed condition. Agricultural Research Center of Kohgiloyeh and Boyer Ahmad, No 77-232, 11p. [In Persian].

Mohammadi, A., Majidi, E., Bihamta, M.R., Heidari Sharifabad, H., 2006. Evaluation of drought stress on agro-morphological characteristics in some wheat cultivars. Pajouhesh & Sazandegi. 73, 184-192. [In Persian with English Summary].

Nazeri, M., Beheshti, A., Zarefizabad, A., Hashemi, H., 2004.Effect of mixed cropping with different seeding rate on yield and agronomic traits of wheat cultivars. Proceeding of 8th Congress of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, University of Guilan, Iran. [In Persian].

Oveysi, M., 2005. A study of the effect of intercropping and nitrogen fertilizer on agronomical and morphological traits of two corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids. Master Dissertation, Faculty of Agriculture, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran. [In Persian with English Summary].

Passioura, J., 2006. Increasing crop productivity when water is scarce-from breeding to field management. Agricultural Water Management. 80, 176-196.

Palta, J.A., Chen, X., Milroy, S.P., Rebetzke, G.J., Dreccer, M.F., Watt, M., 2011. Large root systems: are they useful in adapting wheat to dry environments? Functional Plant Biology 38, 347-354.

Qadir, G.S., Mohammad, C., Akhtar, M., 1999. Effect of water stress on growth and yield performance of four wheat cultivars. Pak. Journal of Biological Sciences, 2, 236-239.

Rauf, M., Munir, M., Hassan, M., Ahmed, M., Afzai, M., 2007. Performance of wheat genotypes under osmotic stress at germination and early seedling growth stage. African Journal of Biotechnology. 8, 971-975.

Ritchie, S.W., Nguyen, H.T., Holaday, A.S., 1990. Leaf water content and gas-exchange parameters of two wheat genotypes differing in drought resistance. Crop Science, 30, 105-111.

Rostaei, M., 2010. Genetic study of tonnage tolerance in wheat based on the characteristics of morphophysiological and molecular markers. Dissertation Doctor of Plant Breeding. Islamic Azad University. Science and Researches Section. Tehran.

Royo, C., Abaza, M., Blanco, R., Garcia del Moral, L.F., 2000. Triticale grain growth and morphometry as affected by drought stress, late sowing and simulated drought stress. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology. 27, 1051-5059.

Saeidi, S., Abdoli, M., Shafiei-Abnavi, M., Mohammadi, M., Eskandari-Ghaleh, z., 2016. Evaluation of genetic diversity of bread and durum wheat genotypes based on agronomy traits and some morphological traits in Non-Stress and terminal drought stress conditions. Cereal Research. 5(4), 353-369.

Sari, j., Himanen, E., Ketoja, K., Hakala, R.P, Rotter, T.S., Helena, K., 2013. Cultivar diversity has great potential to increae yield of feed barley. Agronomy Sustainable. 33, 519-530.

Seyedi, M., Hamzei, J., Ahmadvand, G.A., and Abutalebian, M.A., 2012. The evaluation of weed suppression and crop productionin barley chickpea intercrops. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 22, 1-14. [In Persian with English Summary].

Tavakoli1, A.R., Mahdavi-Moghadam, M., and Salemi, H.R., 2014. Effects of supplemental irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer on correlation coefficient and drought to lerance indices of rainfed bread wheat.EJCP. 7(4), 143-159.

Uddin, M. J., Martin, B., and Chowdhry, M.A.Z., 1997. Genetic parameters, correlation, path coefficient and selection indices in wheat. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 32, 528-538.

USDA,2010.http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/highlights/2010/11/global%20durum/

Yasir, T.A., Min, D., Chen, X., Condon, A.G., Hu, Y.G. 2013. The association of carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) with gas exchange parameters and yield traits in Chinese bread wheat cultivars under two water regimes. Agricultural Water Management. 119, 111-120.

Zareh-FaizAbadi, A., Emamverdian, A., 2012.Evaluation the influence of cultivar intercropping on agronomic properties and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield. Iranian Journal of Agroecology 4(2), 144-200. [In Persian with English Summary].

Zhu,Y., Chen, H., Fan, J., Wang, Y., Chen, J., Yang, Sh., Hu, L., Leung, H., Mew, T.W., Teng, P.S., Wang, Z., Mundt, Ch., 2000. Genetic diversity and disease control in rice. Nature. 406, 718-722.


مقالات آماده انتشار، پذیرفته شده
انتشار آنلاین از تاریخ 01 فروردین 1399
  • تاریخ دریافت: 06 شهریور 1397
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 22 آبان 1397
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 13 آبان 1397