Abbas, T., Rizwan, M., Ali, S., Adrees, M., Mahmood, A., Aia-ur-Rehman, M., Ibrahim, M., Arshad, M., Qayyum, M.F., 2018. Biochar application increased the growth and yield and reduced cadmium in drought stressed wheat grown in an aged contaminated soil. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 140, 37–47.
Ali, S., Rizwan, M., Qayyum, M.F., Ok, Y.S., Ibrahim, M., Riaz, M., Arif, M.S., Hafeez, F., Al-Wabel, M.I., Shahzad, A.N., 2017. Biochar soil amendment on alleviation of drought and salt stress in plants: a critical review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 24, 12700–12712.
Akhtar, S.S., Andersen, M.N., Liu, F. 2015. Residual effects of biochar on improving growth, physiology and yield of wheat under salt stress.Agricultural Water Manage. 158, 61-68.
Ansari, O., Choghazardi, H.R., Sharif Zadeh, F., Nazarli, H., 2012. Seed reserve utilization and seedling growth of treated seeds of mountain rye (Secale montanum) as affected by drought stress. Cercetari Agronomice in Moldova. 2(150), 43-48.
Arfan, M., Athar, H.R., Ashraf, M., 2007. Does exogenous application of salicylic acid through the rooting medium modulate growth and photosynthetic capacity in two differently adapted spring wheat cultivars under salt stress? Journal of Plant Physiology. 164, 685-694.
Arnon, D.T., 1949. Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts poly phenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiology. 24, 1-15.
Azooz, M.M., Youssef, M.M., 2010. Evaluation of heat shock and salicylic acid treatments as inducers of drought stress tolerance in Hassawi wheat. American Journal of Plant Pgisiology.5, 56-70
Bakewell-Stone, P., 2011. Introduction to Biochar in Tropical Agriculture, Pro Natura International, Paris, France. 51p.
Baljain, R., Shekari, F., 2012. Effects of priming by salicylic acid on yield and growth indices of safflower (Carthamus tinctorus L.) plants under end season drought stress. Sustainable Agriculture and Production Science. 22 (1), 87-107. [In Persian with English summary].
Bandurska, H., Stroinski, A., 2005. The effect of salicylic acid on barley response to water deficit. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum. 27, 379-386.
Bradaran Najjar, A., 2016. Effects of Biochar and salicylic acid on growth characteristic of safflower (Carthamus tinctorus L.) under water deficit stress. Thesis of M.Sc. Shahrood University of Technology. 107p. [In Persian].
Cag, S., Cevahir-Oz, G., Sarsag, M., Goren-Saglam, N., 2009. Effect of salicylic acid on pigment, protein content and peroxidase activity in excised sunflower cotyledons. Pakestan Journal of Botany. 41, 2297–2303.
Camas, N., Cirak, C., Esendal, E., 2007. Seed yield, oil content and fatty acids composition of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) grown in Northern Turkey conditions. Journal of Agriculture Faculty of Ondokuz Mayis University. 22, 98-104.
Chan, K.Y., Van Zwieten, L., Meszaros, I., Downie, A., Joseph, S., 2007. Agronomic values of green waste biochar as a soil amendment. Australian Journal of Soil Research. 45, 629-634.
Christopher, J., Atkinson – Jean, D., Fitzgerald Neil A., 2010. Potential mechanisms for achieving agricultural benefits from biochar application to temperate soils: a review. Plant and Soil. 337, 1–18.
Das, R.Ch., Somanagouda, G., Singh. B., 2017. Effect of integrated nutrient management (INM) practices on growth, yield and oil yield of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 6(4), 511-516.
Dat, J.F., Foyer, C.H., Scott, I.M., 1998. Changes in salicylic acid and antioxidants during induced thermotolerance in mustard seedlings. Plant Physiology. 118, 1455- 1461.
Davies, B.H., 1976. Caroteniods, In: Chemistry and Biochemistry of Plant Pigments. (Ed.): T.W. Goodwin. (2nd Edition), Academic Press, London, 2, 38-165.
Dawood, M.G., Sadak, M.S., Hozayen, M., 2012. Physiological role of salicylic acid in improving performance, yield and some biochemical aspects of sunflower plant growth under newly reclaimed sandy soil. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 6(4), 82-89.
Dhopte, A.M., Manuel, L.M. 2002. Principals and Techniques for Plant Scientists. Lst End.Updeshpurohit for Agrobios (India). Odupur. p 373.
El-Tayeb, M.A., 2005. Response of barley grains to the interactive effect of salinity and salicylic acid. Plant Growth Regulation. 45, 215-224.
Farahbakhsh, H., Shamsaddin Saiid, M., 2011. Effect of seed priming with NaCl on maize germination under different saline conditions. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 6(28), 6095-6099.
Farjam, S., Rokhzadi, A., Mohamadi, H., Ghalaeh shakhani, S., 2014. Effect of cut irrigation and foliar application of Salicylic acid on growth, Yield and components yield three safflower spring cultivars. Crop Physiology Journal. 6 (23), 99-111. [In Persian with English Summary].
Fariduddin, Q., Hayat, S., Ahmad, A. 2003. Salicylic acid influences net photosynthetic rate, carboxylationefficiency, nitrate reducutase activity, and seed yield in Brassica juncea. Photosynthetica. 41(2), 281-284.
Galinato, S.P., Yoder, J.K., Granatstein, D., 2011. The economic value of biochar in crop production and carbon sequestration. Energy Policy. 39(10), 6344–6350.
Gebremedhin, G.H., Haileselassie, 1.B., Berhe, D., and Belay, T., 2015. Effect of biochar on yield and yield components of wheat and post-harvest soil properties in Tigray, Ethiopia. Journal of Fertilizers and Pesticides. 6(2), 1-4.
Głodowska, M., Schwinghamer, T., Husk, B., Smith, D., 2017. Biochar based inoculants improve soybean growth and nodulation. Agricultural Sciences. 8, 1048-1064.
Hafeez, Y., Iqbal, S., Jabeer, K., Shahzad, S., Jahan, S., Rasul, F., 2017). Effect of biochar application on seed germination and seedling growth of Glycine max L. Merr. Under drought stress. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 49(SI), 7-13.
Harris, D., Rashid, A., Miraj, G., 2008. On-farm seed priming with zinc in chickpea and wheat in Pakistan. Plant and Soil. 306, 3-10.
Hayat, S., Masood, A., Yusef, M., Fariduddin, Q., Ahmad, A., 2009. Growth of Indian Zea maize in response to salicylic acid under high-temperature stress. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology. 21(3), 187- 195.
Hayat, Q., Hayat, S., Irfan, M., Ahmad, A., 2010. Effect of exogenous salicylic acid under changing environment: A review. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 68, 14-25.
Horvath, E., Szalai, G., Janda, T., 2007. Induction of abiotic stress tolerance by salicylic acid signaling. Plant Growth Regulation. 26, 290-300.
Iqbal, M., Ashraf, M., 2007. Seed treatment with auxins modulates growth and ion partitioning in salt-stressed wheat plants. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology. 49, 1003-1015.
Khan, W., Prithiviraj, B., Smith, D.L., 2003. Photosynthetic responses of corn and soybean to foliar application of salicylates. Journal of Plant Physiology. 160,485–492.
Lonbani, M., Arzani, A., 2011. Morpho-physiological traits associated with terminal drought-stress tolerance in triticale and wheat. Agronomy Research. 9, 315–329.
Maibangsa, S., Thangaraj, M., Roy, S., 2001. Alleviation of low irradiance stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by growth regulators. Annals of Plant Physiology. 13 (2), 133-142.
Major, J., Steiner, C., Downie, A., Lehmann, J., 2009. Biochar effects on nutrient leaching. Chapter 15. In: Lehmann, J., Joseph, S. (eds.), Biochar for Environmental Management Science and Technology. Earthscan, London. pp 271–287.
Miar Sadeghi, S., Shekari, F., Fotovet, R., Zangani, E., 2010. The effect of priming by salicylic acid on vigor and seedling growth of canola (Brassica napus) under water deficit condition. Journal of Plant Biology. 2(6), 55-70. [In Persian with English Summary].
Martinez, J.P., Lutts, S., Schank, A., Bajji, M., Kinet, J.M., 2004. Is osmotic adjustment required for water stress resistance in the Meditrranean shrub Atriplex halimus L. Journal of Plant Physiology. 161, 1041-1051.
Mohammadkhani, N., Heidari, R., 2007. Effects of water stress on respiration, photosynthetic pigments and water content in tow Maize cultivar. Pakistan Journal Biological Science. 10, 4022-4028.
Novak, J.M., Busscher, W.J., Watts, D.W., Amonette, J.E., Ippolito, J.A., Lima, I.M., Gaskin, J., Das, K.C, Steiner, C., Ahmedna, M., Rehrah, D., Schomberg, H., 2012. Biochars impact on soil-moisture storage in an ultisol and two aridisols. Soil Science. 177, 310–320.
Omidi, A.H., Khazaei, H., Monneux, P., Stoddard, F., 2012. Effect of Cultivar and water regime on yield and yield components in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).Turkish Journal of Field Crops. 17(1), 10-15.
Omidi, H., Tahmasebi, Z., Naghdi Badi, H.A., Torabi, H., Miransari. M., 2010. Fatty acid composition of canola (Brassica napus L.), as affected by agronomical, genotypic and environmental parameters. Comptes Rendus Biologies, 333(3), 248-254.
Oya, A., Lu, W.G., 2002. Deodorization performance of charcoal particles loaded with orthophosphoric acid against ammonia and trimethylamine. Carbon. 40(9), 1391-399.
Pereira, R.G., Heinemann, A.B., Madari, B.E., de MeloCarvalho, M.T., Kliemann, H.J., Pereira dos Santos Huberto Jose, A., 2012. Transpiration response of upland rice to water deficit changed by different levels of eucalyptus biochar. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira. 47(5), 716-721.
Piccolo, A., Pietramellara, G., Mbagwu, J.S.C., 1996. Effects of coal derived humic substances on water retention and structural stability of Mediterranean soils. Soil Use Management. 12,209- 213.
Popova, L.P., Maslenkova, L.T., Yordanova, R.Y., Ivanova, A.P., Krantev, A.P., Szalai, G., Janda, T., 2009. Exogenous treatment with salicylic acid attenuates cadmium toxicity in pea seedlings. Plant Physioliochem. 47, 224–231.
Rab, A., Khan, M.R., Haq, S.U., Zahid, S., Asim, M., Afridi, M.Z., Arif, M., Munsif, F., 2016. Impact of biochar on mungbean yield and yield components. Pure Applied Biology. 5(3), 632-640.
Sadras, V.O., Milroy, S.P., 1996. Soil water thresholds for the responses of leaf expansion and gas exchange: a review. Field Crops Research. 47, 253-266.
Sarah, C., Shackley, S., Sohi, S., Haefele, S., 2013. The impact of biochar application on soil properties and plant growth of pot grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and cabbage (Brassica chinensis). Agronomy. 3, 404-418.
Singh, B., Usha, K., 2003. Salicylic acid induced physiological and biochemical changes in wheat seedlings under water stress. Plant Growth Regulation. 39, 137-141.
Shinwari, Z.K., Rehman, H., Rabbani, M.A., 2014. Morphological traits based genetic diversity in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Pakistan Journal of Botany. 46(4), 1389-1395.
Sukartono, W., Utomo, H., Kusuma, Z., Nugroho, W.H., 2011. Soil fertility status, nutrient uptake, and maize (Zea mays L.) yield following biochar application on sandy soils of Lombok, Indonesia. Journal of Tropical Agriculture. 49, 47-52.
Szalai, G., Krantev, A., Yordanova, R., Popova, L.P., Janda, T., 2013. Influence of salicylic acid on phytochelatin synthesis in Zea mays during Cd stress. Turkish Journal of Botany. 37, 708–714.
Taheri Oshtrinani, F., Fathi, A., 2016. The impacts of mycorrhiza and phsphorus along with the use of salicylic acid on maize seed yield. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology. 10(3), 657-668. [In Persian with English Summary].
Wang, L.J., Li, S.H., 2006. Salicylic acid induced heat or cold tolerance in relation to Ca2+ homeostasis and antioxidant system in young grape plants. Plant Science. 170, 685-694.