تأثیر کاربرد کودهای زیستی و شیمیایی بر برخی صفات فیزیولوژیک گیاه ذرت (.Zea mays L) تحت خشکی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌‌آموخته گروه زراعت و اصلاح‌نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه کردستان، سنندج

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح‌نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه کردستان، سنندج

چکیده

تنش خشکی یک تنش غیرزیستی است که به‌طورجدی عملکرد گیاهان زراعی را در بیشتر نقاط جهان تحت تأثیر قرار می‌دهد. لذا به‌منظور بررسی اثر کاربرد کودهای زیستی و عناصر ریزمغذی بر کاهش و تعدیل اثرات تنش خشکی روی برخی خصوصیات فیزیولوژیک و عملکرد دانه ذرت (Mv500) آزمایشی به­صورت اسپلیت‌پلات در قالب طرح پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی 1391 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه کردستان انجام گرفت. در این آزمایش فاکتور آبیاری در دو سطح شامل آبیاری کامل و تنش در مرحله گلدهی در کرت­های اصلی قرار گرفت و سطوح کودی شامل 100 درصد کود شیمیایی، 100 درصد کود شیمیایی + ریزمغذی‌ها، بیوسوپرفسفات + نیتروکسین، بیوسوپرفسفات + نیتروکسین + ریزمغذی­ها، 50 درصد کود شیمیایی + بیوسوپرفسفات، 50 درصد کود شیمیایی + بیوسوپرفسفات + نیتروکسین و شاهد بدون کود به‌عنوان کرت­های فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند. نتایج نشان داد تنش کمبود آب، فعالیت آنزیم­های آنتی‌اکسیدان را افزایش داد، درحالی‌که کودهای زیستی و عناصر ریزمغذی سبب کاهش میزان فعالیت آنزیم­ها شدند. تنش خشکی، محتوی کلروفیل برگ را کاهش داد ولی غلظت پرولین، مالون دی آلدئید و پراکسید هیدروژن در پاسخ به تنش، افزایش معنی‌داری پیدا کرد. کاربرد کودهای زیستی و عناصر ریزمغذی از کاهش محتوی کلروفیل برگ و افزایش پراکسیدهیدروژن و پراکسیداسیون لیپیدی ناشی از تنش خشکی جلوگیری نمود؛ بنابراین استفاده از کودهای زیستی و تأمین عناصر غذایی موردنیاز گیاه توانست باعث افزایش مقاومت گیاه به تنش خشکی و بهبود عملکرد گیاه گردد. لذا می‌تواند به‌عنوان یک راهکار جهت کاهش اثرات تنش خشکی روی عملکرد گیاه در نظر گرفته شود.

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