بررسی تنوع ژنتیکی لاین‌های S1 گرد‌ه‌افشان چغندرقند تحت شرایط تنش کم‌آبیاری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 محقق بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی-باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی

2 دانشجوی دکتری رشته اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان

3 دانشیار گروه اصلاح نباتات و بیوتکنولوژی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان

4 استادیار بخش تحقیقات چغندرقند، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، مشهد

چکیده

این تحقیق به منظور ارزیابی خصوصیات فیزیولوژیکی تعداد 34 ژنوتیپ چغندرقند (30 لاین S1 گرده‌افشان به همراه سه رقم شاهد شکوفا، مطهر، پایا و جمعیت اصلاحی اولیه) تحت دو شرایط آبیاری نرمال و تنش خشکی در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی در سال زراعی 96-1395 انجام شد. آبیاری‌ها تا مرحله تنک و وجین (استقرار بوته‌ها) به طور معمول انجام شد. آبیاری‌های بعدی در شرایط نرمال پس از 90 میلی‌متر و در شرایط تنش پس از 200 میلی‌متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر کلاس A صورت گرفت. در این پژوهش صفاتی از قبیل عملکرد ریشه، درصد قند ناخالص، عملکرد قند ناخالص، کلروفیل، شاخص پوشش گیاهی NDVI، شاخص سطح برگ، اختلاف دمای برگ و محیط، محتوی آب نسبی برگ، وزن ویژه برگ، شاخص شادابی، سطح ویژه برگ و نشت الکترولیتی اندازه‌گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد که تحت هر دو شرایط آبیاری در شرایط بدون تنش و تنش خشکی بین ژنوتیپ‌ها از نظر کلیه صفات مورد مطالعه اختلاف بسیارمعنی‌داری در سطح احتمال یک درصد وجود دارد. نتایج تجزیه واریانس مرکب نیز نشان داد که از نظر اکثر صفات بین ژنوتیپ‌های مورد بررسی و رژیم‌های مختلف آبیاری تفاوت معنی‌داری در سطح یک درصد وجود دارد. در شرایط آبیاری نرمال، رقم شاهد مطهر و در شرایط تنش خشکی، لاین S1-15 از بیشترین مقدار عملکرد قند ناخالص (به ترتیب 9.09 و 5.10 تن در هکتار) برخوردار بودند. مطالعه ضرایب همبستگی نشان داد که در شرایط نرمال و تنش، عملکرد ریشه با عملکرد قند ناخالص و شاخص پوشش گیاهی NDVI همبستگی مثبت و معنی‌داری داشت. در هر دو شرایط آبیاری نرمال و تنش خشکی، تجزیه به عامل‌ها منجر به شناسایی چهار عامل گردید که به ترتیب 69.55 و 74.75 درصد تغییرات کل را توجیه کردند

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