بررسی اثر تنش خشکی بر برخی شاخص‌های فیزیولوژیک، درصد و عملکرد اسانس گونه مریم گلی سهندی (.Salvia sahendica L)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

گروه کشاورزی، واحد یادگار امام خمینی (ره) شهرری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، شهرری

چکیده

با توجه به اهمیت گیاه دارویی مریم گلی سهندی (.Salvia sahendica L) در صنایع مختلف ازجمله داروسازی، این تحقیق با هدف بررسی اثر تنش خشکی بر برخی شاخص‌های فیزیولوژیک، درصد و عملکرد اسانس این گیاه در سال 1395 در شهرستان مبارکه انجام گردید. سطوح تنش خشکی شامل دور آبیاری 4 روزه (شاهد)، 8، 12 و 16روزه بود که در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی در شرایط مزرعه اجرا گردید. نتایج تجزیه واریانس حاصل از نرم افزار MSTAT-C نشان داد، کاربرد سطوح مختلف دور آبیاری بر شاخص‌های فیزیولوژیک، درصد و عملکرد اسانس اثر معنی‌دار دارد. بر اساس نتایج مقایسه میانگین‌ها، بیشترین میزان نسبی آب برگ (95%)،کلروفیل کل، a و b به ترتیب با میانگین 2.47، 1.32، 0.98 میلی‌گرم برگرم مربوط به تیمار شاهد بود. بالاترین پتانسیل آب برگ (1.78- مگاپاسکال)، تجمع پرولین (3.1 میلی‌گرم بر گرم) و نشت الکترولیت (57.7%) را دور آبیاری 16 روزه نشان داد. حداکثر میزان قند محلول، درصد و عملکرد اسانس به ترتیب با میانگین 2.55 میلی‌گرم بر گرم، 0.3 درصد و 14.3 کیلوگرم در هکتار مربوط به دور آبیاری 12 روزه بود. این نتایج نشان می‌دهد، این گیاه در مواجه با تنش خشکی از طریق افزایش انباشت میزان پرولین و قندهای محلول (تنظیم اسمزی) به تنش آبی مقاومت نشان می‌دهد. بررسی همبستگی صفات نشان داد، بین کلروفیلa، کلروفیلb، با پرولین، قندهای محلول، درصد و عملکرد اسانس رابطه منفی حاکم است. زیرا در شرایط بدون تنش که مقدار کلروفیل aدر حداکثر مقدار خود قرار دارد، پرولین، قندهای محلول و اسانس بسیار اندک تولید می‌شوند. به طور کلی، با توجه به عدم تفاوت معنی‌دار شاخص‌های فیزیواوژیک در دورهای 8 و 12 روزه نسبت به شاهد می‌توان با اطمینان 95% نتیجه گرفت که رژیم آبیاری بهینه برای تولید درصد بیشتر اسانس و استفاده از این گیاه در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک دور آبیاری 12 روزه می‌باشد.

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