تاثیر سطوح مختلف کیفیت آب آبیاری و کود سولفات آهن بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گندم (.Triticum aestivum L)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار پژوهش، مرکز ملی تحقیقات شوری، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، یزد، ایران.

چکیده

به منظور مطالعه تاثیر کیفیت آب آبیاری و مصرف خاکی سولفات آهن بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گندم (رقم بم) آزمایشی در ایستگاه تحقیقاتی مرکز ملی تحقیقات شوری اجرا شد. این تحقیق دارای سه سطح کیفیت آب آبیاری (شوری 1.88 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر و نسبت جذب سدیم 5.76، شوری 7.22 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر و نسبت جذب سدیم 11.82، و شوری 14.16 دسی زیمنس برمتر و نسبت جذب سدیم 24.73) به عنوان فاکتور اصلی و چهار سطح کود سولفات آهن شامل صفر، 20، 40 و 80 کیلوگرم در هکتار به عنوان فاکتور فرعی بود. آزمایش در قالب طرح آماری بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی به صورت اسپلیت پلات با سه تکرار اجرا شد. نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش شوری آب آبیاری از 1.88 به 7.22 دسی زیمنس بر متر، عملکرد دانه و کاه گندم کاهش معنی داری نداشت. علت این مشاهده افزایش وزن هزار دانه و شاخص برداشت با افزایش شوری از 1.88 به7.22 دسی زیمنس بر متر بود. با افزایش شوری آب آبیاری به 14.16 دسی زیمنس بر متر عملکرد دانه و کاه حدود 50 درصد کاهش یافت. این کاهش به دلیل تاثیر منفی افزایش شوری بر طول سنبله، تعداد سنبلک بارور، تعداد دانه در سنبله و تعداد کل سنبلک‌ها و افزایش تعداد سنبلک عقیم با افزایش شدت تنش شوری بود. بررسی اثرات متقابل شوری و کود سولفات آهن نشان داد که بیشترین میزان عملکرد دانه در شوری‌های آب ابیاری 1.88، 7.22 و 14.16 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر به ترتیب از مصرف 40، 20 و صفر کیلوگرم در هکتار کود سولفات آهن حاصل شد. بنابراین، به نظر می‌رسد با کاهش کیفیت آب آبیاری (افزایش شوری و نسبت جذب سدیم) مقدار آهن مورد نیاز گندم جهت حصول بیشترین عملکرد کاهش می‌یابد.

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