بررسی تحمل و مقاومت به تنش غرقابی در ژنوتیپ های مختلف سویا

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترا اکولوژی گیاهان زراعی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

2 استاد گروه زراعت دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

3 دانشیار گروه زراعت دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

4 استادیار گروه زراعت دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

5 دانشجوی دکترا فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

چکیده

در ایران اطلاعات کافی در مورد ژنوتیپ­های متحمل به تنش غرقاب در گیاه سویا که عملکرد بالایی در شرایط تنش غرقابی داشته باشند، وجود ندارد. بر این اساس این آزمایش به‌منظور انتخاب ژنوتیپ یا ژنوتیپ­های سویا متحمل به تنش غرقاب در کشور بر اساس عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد دانه و شاخص­های تحمل به تنش انجام شد. این آزمایش به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی در هوای آزاد با 3 تکرار و دو فاکتور (الف) تنش غرقاب (بدون تنش غرقاب و 15 روز تنش غرقاب)، و (ب) ژنوتیپ (31 ژنوتیپ سویا) در دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان انجام شد. زمان اعمال دوره غرقابی در مرحله 5 برگی (V5) بود. نتایج این آزمایش نشان داد تنش غرقاب عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک سویا را به­طور معنی­داری کاهش می­دهد، به­طوری­که عملکرد دانه در ژنوتیپ­های مختلف 40.6 تا 61.7 درصد و عملکرد بیولوژیک نیز 17 تا 44 درصد طی 15 روز تنش غرقاب کاهش پیدا کرد. بیشترین عملکرد دانه پس از 15 روز تنش غرقاب در ژنوتیپ­‌های 326 و 827 و کمترین عملکرد دانه پس از 15 روز تنش غرقاب در ژنوتیپ‌های 114 و 937 مشاهده شد. نتایج این آزمایش همچنین نشان داد شاخص­های تحمل به تنش GMP، MP و STI همبستگی بسیار بالایی با عملکرد دانه در شرایط تنش دارند و می­توان از این سه شاخص برای انتخاب ژنوتیپ­هایی با عملکرد بالا در شرایط تنش و عدم تنش استفاده کرد. بر اساس شاخص­های SSI، STI، MP و GMP ژنوتیپ­های 859، 827 و 326 مقاوم­ترین ژنوتیپ­ها از میان ژنوتیپ­های موردمطالعه در این آزمایش می­باشند.

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