ارزیابی برخی صفات بیوشیمیایی در چند گونه‌ زراعی و وحشی گندم تحت تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد اصلاح نباتات، گروه اصلاح نباتات و بیوتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل

2 استاد گروه اصلاح نباتات و بیوتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل

3 استادیار گروه اصلاح نباتات و بیوتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل

4 استادیار موسسه تحقیقات کشاورزی دیم کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، مراغه

چکیده

تنش خشکی یک تنش غیرزنده است که به عنوان یکی از عوامل مهم کاهش‌دهنده رشد محصولات کشاورزی در بیشتر نقاط جهان مخصوصاً ایران بوده و منجر به تنش اکسیداتیو می‌شود. به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر سطوح مختلف تنش خشکی بر برخی صفات ویژگی‌های بیوشیمیایی، پژوهشی در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی زابل به‌صورت آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال 1395-1396 انجام گرفت. فاکتور اول گونه‌های گندم (تائوشی، اسپلتوئیدز، اورارتو، شبرنگ، بهرنگ، سیستان، ارگ) و فاکتور دوم سطوح آبیاری (90، 70، 50 و 30 درصد ظرفیت زراعی) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر تنش خشکی بر غلظت پروتئین، کلروفیل a، b، کاروتنوئید، آنزیم کاتالاز، سوپر اکسید دیسموتاز، آسکوربات پراکسیداز و مالون دی‌آلدئید تأثیر معنی‌داری داشت. این در حالی است که با افزایش تنش میزان آسکوربات پراکسیداز متغیر بود به‌طوری‌که ابتدا افزایش و سپس کاهش یافت. این وضعیت نشان‌دهنده فعال شدن سیستم آنتی‌اکسیدانی در گونه‌های مختلف گندم برای افزایش تحمل به خشکی است. پروتئین، کلروفیل و کاروتنوئید با افزایش تنش خشکی تا سطح 50 درصد ظرفیت زراعی ابتدا افزایش و با شدیدتر شدن تنش باعث کاهش این مقادیر شد. احتمالا فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی اکسیدانی مانع از تجزیه پروتیئن و سایر اجزاسلولی شده است. در این تحقیق رقم شبرنگ نسبت به دیگر ارقام برتری داشت در حالی که کمترین مقادیر مربوط به گونه هگزاپلوئید سیستان بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


Abdollahi, H., Ghahremani, Z., Erfaninia, K., Mehrabi, R., 2015. Role of electron transport chain of chloroplasts in oxidative burst of interaction between Erwinia amylovora and host cells. Photosynthesis Research. 124, 231–242.

Ahmad, P., 2010. Growth and antioxidant responses in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants subjected to combined effect of gibberellic acid and salinity. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science. 56, 575-588.‏

Ahmadabadi, M., Ahmadi Tehrani, P., Omidi, M., Davoodi, D., 2005. Studies on interspecific caryotypic diversity in Aegilops triuncialis in north-western Iran. Journal of Agricultural Science. 36, 969-977. [In Persian with English summary].

Ahmadi, A. Child, A., Baker, A., 2000. Stomata factors limiting photosynthesis in wheat under drought stress. Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 31, 79-89.

Ahmed, I.M., Dai, H., Zheng, W., Cao, F., Zhang, G., Sun, D., Wu, F., 2013. Genotypic differences in physiological characteristics in the tolerance to drought and salinity combined stress between Tibetan wild and cultivated barley. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 63, 49-60.‏

Alonso, R., Elvira, S., Castillo, F.J., Gimeno, B.S., 2001. Interactive effects of ozone and drought stress on pigments and activities of antioxidative enzymes in Pinus halepensis. Plant, Cell and Environment. 24, 905-916.‏

Alscher‚ R.G.‚ Erturk, N., Heath, L.S., 2002. Role of superoxide dismutases (SOD) in controlling oxidative stress in plant. Experimental Botany. 153, 1331-1341.

Amini, Z., Hadad, R., 2013. The role of photosynthetic pigments and antioxidant enzymes against oxidative stress. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Research, (Iranian Journal of Biology). 26, 265-251. [In Persian with English summary].

Anjum, S.A., Wang, L., Farooq, M., Khan, I., Xue, L., 2011. Methyl jasmonate‐induced alteration in lipid peroxidation, antioxidative defence system and yield in soybean under drought. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 197, 296-301.‏

Beachamp, C., Fridovich, F., 1971. Superoxide dismutase: improved assay and an assay applicable to acrylamide gels. Analytical Biochemistry. 44, 276-287.

Bhattacharjee, S., 2010. Sites of generation and physicochemical basis of formation of reactive oxygen species in plant cell. In: Gupta, S.D. (ed.), Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidants in Higher Plants, 1–30. Science Pub. Edenbridge Ltd. British Channel Island. New Hampshire. USA. CRC Press (Taylor and Francis)

Borzoi, A., Khazaei, H., Shahriari. F., 2006. Effect of drought stress on physiological traits and antioxidant of wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) after pollination under greenhouse conditions. Agriculture Economy Science. 5, 65-74.

Bradford, M., 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantization of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry, 72, 248-254.‏

Chaves, M.S., Martinelli, J.A., Wesp-Guterres, C., Graichen, F.A.S., Brammer, S.P., Scagliusi, S.M., Consoli, L., 2013. The importance for food security of maintaining rust resistance in wheat. Food Security. 5, 157-176.

Costa, P.H.A.D., Neto, A.D.D.A., Bezerra, M.A., Prisco, J.T., Gomes-Filho, E., 2005. Antioxidant-enzymatic system of two sorghum genotypes differing in salt tolerance. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology. 17, 353-362.

Emadi, N., Jahangin, Sh., Balochi, h. R., 2013. Effect of drought Stress and plant density on yield and some physiological characters of pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Yasouj region. Journal of Crop Production. 5(2), 1-17. [In Persian with English summary].

FAO., 2013. Published online at: Http//faostate.fao.org/sit /339/default.aspx.

Farooq, M., Bramley, H., Palta, J.A., Siddique, K.H., 2011. Heat stress in wheat during reproductive and grain-filling phases. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 30, 491-507.‏

Fedoroff, N.V., Battisti, D.S., Beachy, R.N., Cooper, P.J., Fischhoff, D.A., Hodges, C.N., Reynolds, M.P., 2010. Radically rethinking agriculture for the 21st century. Science. 327, 833-834.‏

Ferreira, I. C., Abreu, R., 2007. Stress oxidativo, antioxidantes e fitoquímicos. Bioanálise. 2, 32-39.

Foyer, C. H., Lelandais, M., Kunert, K.J., 1994. Photooxidative stress in plants. Physiologia Plantarum. 92, 696-717.‏

Ghasemi Pirbalouti, A., Samani, M.R., Hashemi, M., Zeinali, H., 2014. Salicylic acid affects growth, essential oil and chemical compositions of thyme (Thymus daenensis Celak.) under reduced irrigation. Plant Growth Regulation. 72, 289-301.

Gill, S.S., Tuteja, N., 2010. Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 48, 909-930.

Gregersen, P.L., Holm, P.B., 2007. Transcriptome analysis of senescence in the flag leaf of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Journal of Plant Biotechnology. 5, 192-206.

Gupta, B., Huang, B., 2014. Mechanism of salinity tolerance in plants: physiological, biochemical, and molecular characterization. International Journal of Genomics. ‏1-18. Article ID 701596

Hassani, M., Salami, S.A., Nasiri, J., Abdollahi, H. Ghahremani, Z., 2016. Phylogenetic analysis of PR genes in some pome fruit species with the emphasis on transcriptional analysis and ROS response under Erwinia amylovora inoculation in apple. Genetica. 144, 9-22.‏

Heath, R.L., Packer, L., 1968. Photoperoxidation in isolated chloroplasts. I. Kinetics and stoichiometry of fatty acid peroxidation. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics.125, 189-198.

Janda, T., Kosa, E.L., Szalai. G., Paldi, E., 2005. Investigatin of antioxidant activity of maize during low temperature stress. Journal of Plant Physiology. 49, 53-54.

Kamelmanesh, M., Bagherizadeh, M., Javanmadi, Sh., 2010. Effect of drought stress on ionic content changes, soluble carbohydrate content, chlorophyll content and relative water content in white bean genotypes. The 2nd National Conference on Agriculture and Sustainable Development, Opportunities and Challenges. Islamic Azad University of Shiraz. [In Persian].

Kafi, M., Bagheri, A., Nabati, J., Zare Mehrjerdi, M., Masoumi, AS., 2010. Effect of salinity stress on some physiological variables of 11 chickpea genotypes in hydroponic environment. Journal of Greenhouse Culture Science and Technology. 4, 55-69. [In Persian with English summary].

MacAdam, J.W., Nelson, C.J., Sharp, R.E., 1992. Peroxidase activity in the leaf elongation zone of tall fescue I. Spatial distribution of ionically bound peroxidase activity in genotypes differing in length of the elongation zone. Plant Physiology. 99, 872-878.‏

Neidzwiedz, I., Bogatek, R., Come, D., Coibineau, F., 2004. Effects of drying rate on dehydration sensitivity of excised wheat seedling shoots as related to sucrose metabolism and antioxidant enzyme activities. Plant Science. 167, 879-888.

Nevo, E., Chen, G., 2010. Drought and salt tolerances in wild relatives for wheat and barley improvement. Plant, Cell and Environment. 33, 670-685.‏

Pessarkli, M., 1999. Handbook of Plant and Crop Stress. Marcel Dekker Inc. 697p.

Reddy, M.P. Vora, A.B., 1986. Changes in pigment composition, Hill reaction activity and saccharides metabolism in Bajra (Pennisetum typhoides S and H) leaves under NaCl salinity. Photosynthetica. 20, 50-55.‏

Rossatto, T., do Amaral, M.N., Benitez, L.C., Vighi, I.L., Braga, E.J.B., de Magalhaes Júnior, A.M., da Silva Pinto, L., 2017. Gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes in rice plants, cv. BRS AG, under saline stress. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants, 23, 865-875.‏

Sairam, R.K., Srivastava, G.C., 2001. Water stress tolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): variations in hydrogen peroxide accumulation and antioxidant activity in tolerant and susceptible genotypes. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 186, 63-70.‏

Sarmedinia, Gh., Koocheki, A., 1992. Physiological Aspects of Dry Farming. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Publication. 280 p. [In Persian].

Sharma, P., Jha, A.B., Dubey, R.S., Pessarakli, M., 2012. Reactive oxygen species, oxidative damage, and antioxidative defense mechanism in plants under stressful conditions. Journal of Botany.‏

Simonovicova, A., Bartekova, J., Janovova, L., Luptakova, A., 2010. Behaviour of Fe, Mg and Ca in acid mine drainage and experimental solutions in the presence of Aspergillus niger species isolated from various environment. Nova Biotechnology. 10, 63-69.‏

Simonovicova, M., Tamas, L., Huttová, J., Mistrik, I., 2004. Effect of aluminium on oxidative stress related enzymes activities in barley roots. Biologia Plantarum. 48, 261-266.‏

Singh, D., Yadav, N.S., Tiwari, V., Agarwal, P. K., Jha, B., 2016. A SNARE-like superfamily protein SbSLSP from the halophyte Salicornia brachiata confers salt and drought tolerance by maintaining membrane stability, K+/Na+ ratio, and antioxidant machinery. Frontiers in Plant Science. 7, 1-15.‏

Sishen, L., Xianyun Wei, J.J., Linzhi Li, X.Z.h., Chen, H., Fan, Y., Sun, H., Zhao, X., Yunfong Xu, T., Jiang, F., Wang, H., Lihui, L., 2007. An intervarietal genetic map and QTL analysis for yield traits in wheat. Molecular Breeding. 20, 167-178.

Smirnoff, N., 1996. The function and metabolism of ascorbic acid in plants. Annals of Botany. 78, 661-669.

Sofo, A., Scopa, A., Nuzzaci, M., Vitti, A., 2015. Ascorbate peroxidase and catalase activities and their genetic regulation in plants subjected to drought and salinity stresses. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 16, 13561-13578.‏

Tahkokorpi, M., 2010. Anthocyanins under drought and drought-related stresses in blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.). Acta Universitatis Ouluensis: A Scientiae Rerum Naturalium. 556, 1-46.

Tak, H., Negi, S., Ganapathi, T.R., 2017. Banana NAC transcription factor MusaNAC042 is positively associated with drought and salinity tolerance. Protoplasma. 254, 803-816.

Thirumalaikumar, V. P., Devkar, V., Mehterov, N., Ali, S., Ozgur, R., Turkan, I., Balazadeh, S., 2018. NAC transcription factor JUNGBRUNNEN 1 enhances drought tolerance in tomato. Plant Biotechnology Journal. 16, 354-366.‏

Vojdani, P., 1996. Importance of protection methods in natural origin and that’s role in protect and use from plant resources. Proceedings of 4th Iranian Crop Sciences Congress. Esfahan University. 554-573. [In Persian].

Vrancken, K., Holtappels, M., Schoofs, H., Deckers, T., Valcke, R., 2013. Pathogenicity and infection strategies of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora in Rosaceae: state of the art. Microbiology. 159, 823-832.‏

Wang, M.J., Zhang, Y., Lin, Z.S., Ye, X.G., Yuan, Y.P., Ma, W., Xin, Z.Y., 2010. Development of EST-PCR markers for Thinopyrum intermedium chromosome 2Ai# 2 and their application in characterization of novel wheat-grass recombinants. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 121, 1369-1380.‏

Willekens, H., Chamnongpol, S., Davey, M., Schraudner, M., Langebartels, C., Van Montagu, M., Van Camp, W., 1997. Catalase is a sink for H2O2 and is indispensable for stress defence in C3 plants. The EMBO Journal. 16, 4806-4816.

Xu, X., Peng, G., Wu, C., Korpelainen, H., Li, C., 2008. Drought inhibits photosynthetic capacity more in females than in males of Populus cathayana. Tree Physiology. 28, 1751-1759.‏

Yong, Z., T. Hao-Ru., L. Ya., 2008. Variation in antioxidant enzyme activities of two strawbreey cultivars with short-term low temperature stress. Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 4, 456-462.

Zhang, J., Kirkham, M. B., 1995. Water relations of water-stressed, split-root C4 (Sorghum bicolor; Poaceae) and C3 (Helianthus annuus; Asteraceae) plants. American Journal of Botany.1220-1229.‏

Zhang, P.P., Feng, B.L., Wang, P.K., Dai, H. P., Song, H., Gao, X.L., Chai, Y., 2012. Leaf senescence and activities of antioxidant enzymes in different broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) cultivars under simulated drought condition. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment. 10, 438-444.‏

Zhao, Z., Cai, Y., Fu, M., Bai, Z., 2008. Response of the soils of different land use types to drought: eco-physiological characteristics of plants grown on the soils by pot experiment. Ecological Engineering. 34, 215-222.