بررسی برهم‌کنش تنش‌های شوری، خشکی و کود نیتروژن بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و برخی صفات فیزیولوژیک ذرت (.Zea mays L)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ایلام

2 دکتری تخصصی، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ایلام

3 دکتری تخصصی علوم و مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ایلام

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی برهمکنش شوری، خشکی و نیتروژن بر روی برخی صفات فیزیولوژیک، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ذرت (هیبرید متوسط ­رس 604) آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‌های دو بار خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ایلام در بهار و تابستان 1396 اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل چهار سطح شوری (صفر، 2، 4 و 6 دسی­ زیمنس بر متر) از منبع سنگ نمک سدیم به‌عنوان عامل اصلی، سه سطح آبیاری (100، 80 و 60 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه) به‌عنوان عامل فرعی و سه سطح کود نیتروژن از منبع اوره (صفر، 100 و 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به‌عنوان عامل فرعی فرعی در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج نشان داد که اثر متقابل شوری، آبیاری و نیتروژن بر صفات تعداد دانه در بلال، تعداد ردیف در بلال، تعداد دانه در ردیف، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد زیستی و شاخص برداشت معنی‌دار شد. این صفات در بالاترین سطوح تنش اعمال‌شده نسبت به شرایط بدون تنش و کاربرد 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن، به ترتیب برابر 59، 40.6، 40، 69، 65 و 46 درصد کاهش نشان دادند.بیشترین میزان نشت یونی (45 درصد) در بالاترین میزان شوری، حداقل آبیاری و بدون مصرف نیتروژن مشاهده شد. محتوای نسبی آب برگ، کلروفیل a، b، کل و کارتنوئید نیز تحت اثرات دوگانه شوری و خشکی، در بالاترین میزان تنش اعمال‌شده به نسبت شرایط بدون تنش، به ترتیب برابر 18، 46، 32، 40 و 44 درصد کاهش یافتند. نتایج نشان داد کاربرد 100 و 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن در سطوح مختلف تنش، موجب کاهش اثرات تنش‌ها شد و افزایش عملکرد را در پی داشت. همچنین مشاهده شد، تمامی صفات موردبررسی در بالاترین میزان تنش‌ها، پاسخ تقریباً یکسانی به تیمار کودی 100 و 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن داشتند؛ بنابراین به نظر می­رسد که به جهت افزایش مقاومت گیاه ذرت و رسیدن به حداکثر عملکرد در شرایط تنش، کاربرد 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن نسبت به مقادیر بیشتر آن ازلحاظ زیست‌محیطی و اقتصادی مناسب­تر باشد.

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