تأثیر سالیسیلیک اسید و سایکوسل بر درصد و عملکرد اسانس و ویژگی‌های فیزیولوژیک گیاه بادرشبویه (.Dracocephalum moldavica L) در شرایط تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکترای زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان

2 استادیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان

3 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان

4 بخش تحقیقات منابع طبیعی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان زنجان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویح کشاورزی، زنجان

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثرات سالیسیلیک اسید و سایکوسل بر تبادلات گازی گیاه دارویی بادرشبویه در شرایط تنش کم‌آبی پژوهشی در بهار سال‌های 1393 و 1394 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زنجان به اجرا درآمد. آزمایش به‌صورت اسپلیت پلات با دو عامل سطوح رطوبتی و تنظیم کننده‌های رشد در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار اجرا شد. عامل اصلی سطوح رطوبتی در دو سطح بدون تنش (آبیاری کامل تا انتهای دوره رشد)، تنش کم‌آبی (آبیاری کامل تا قبل از شروع گلدهی و قطع آبیاری قبل از شروع گلدهی تا انتهای دوره رشد) اجراشد. عامل فرعی سطوح مختلف سالیسیلیک اسید (800 و 1600 میکرومولار)، سایکوسل (600 و 1200 میکرومولار) و شاهد (محلول‌پاشی با آب مقطر) که قبل ازگلدهی به‌صورت یک بار محلول‌پاشی اعمال شد. نتایج تجزیه واریانس مرکب دوساله نشان داد که اثر متقابل مرحله نمونه‌برداری در سال در رطوبت برای صفات محتوای نسبی آب برگ، دمای کانوپی، درصد اسانس، عملکرد اسانس، وزن تر بوته و وزن خشک بوته در سطح احتمال یک درصد کاملاً معنی دار گردید. میانگین اثر متقابل تنظیم کننده رشد در زمان نمونه‌برداری نشان داد که تیمار سالیسیلیک اسید 800 میکرومولار در مرحله انتهای گلدهی (H3B1) بیشترین درصد اسانس (0.37) و کمترین درصد اسانس نیز مربوط به تیمار سایکوسل 600 میکرومولار (0.16) در مرحله شروع گلدهی (H1B2) است. درصد اسانس در مراحل نموی روند افزایشی دارد به‌طوری‌که بیشترین میزان درصد اسانس مربوط به مرحله انتهای گلدهی است. در شرایط تنش خشکی عملکرد اسانس کاهش می‌یابد. تیمار سایکوسل 1200 میکرومولار از طریق افزایش رشد ریشه و افزایش جذب آب از اعماق خاک موجب شد که گیاه نسبت به سایر تیمارها عملکرد اسانس بیشتری داشته باشد.

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