تاثیر رژیم مختلف آبیاری و کودهای زیستی بر عملکرد دانه، میزان اسانس، برخی صفات فیزیولوژیک و جذب عناصر معدنی در زیره سبز (.Cuminum cyminum L)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار (عضو هیات علمی) مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران

2 استادیار (عضو هیئت‌علمی) گروه کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثرات تنش کم‌آبی و کودهای زیستی بر عملکرد دانه، درصد و عملکرد اسانس دانه و برخی صفات فیزیولوژیک و جذب عناصر معدنی در زیره سبز، آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال‌ زراعی 95 - 1394 در مزرعه ایستگاه تحقیقاتی البرز اجرا گردید. فاکتورهای آزمایشی شامل رژیم آبیاری با سه سطح (آبیاری در زمان 60 ، 110 و 160 میلی‌متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر) به‌عنوان عامل اصلی و کود زیستی با چهار سطح (شاهد، نیتروکسین، بیوفسفر و ترکیب نیتروکسین و بیوفسفر) به‌عنوان عامل فرعی بودند. نتایج نشان دادند که با افزایش شدت تنش خشکی کلروفیل کل (a+b)، کلروفیل a و b، محتوای آب نسبی، میزان پتاسیم، فسفر و نیتروژن دانه کاهش یافت درحالی‌که موجب افزایش پرولین و درصد اسانس گردید. کودهای زیستی موجب افزایش کلروفیل کل، a و b، عملکرد دانه، درصد و عملکرد اسانس، میزان پتاسیم، فسفر و نیتروژن دانه گردیدند. بیشترین عملکرد دانه در تیمار کاربرد نیتروکسین با بیوفسفر با (474.22 کیلوگرم در هکتار) حاصل گردید. همچنین اثر برهمکنش رژیم آبیاری و کود زیستی بر میزان کلروفیل کل، a و b، پرولین، پتاسیم و فسفر دانه معنی‌دار گردید به‌گونه‌ای‌که بیشترین میزان کلروفیل کل، a و b و پتاسیم دانه در تیمار آبیاری در 60 میلی‌متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر با کاربرد کود زیستی نیتروکسین و بیوفسفر به‌دست آمد. در مجموع نتایج نشان داد که استفاده از کود زیستی نیتروکسین و بیوفسفر نسبت به شاهد (عدم مصرف کود)، می‌تواند باعث بهبود درصد و عملکرد اسانس (15.9% و 47%)، عملکرد دانه (36.9%) و جذب عناصر نیتروژن (3.8%)، فسفر (21.9%) و پتاسیم (10.4%) دانه زیره سبز شود. در نهایت می‌توان نتیجه گرفت که اعمال تنش کم‌آبی به همراه استفاده از کود زیستی، راهکار مناسبی جهت بهبود عملکرد دارویی (درصد و عملکرد اسانس) در زیره سبز و کاهش آلودگی محیط زیست می‌باشد.

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