بررسی اثر کودهای زیستی بر عملکرد کمی و تغییرات هورمونی گیاه سویا (Glycine max Merrilll) تحت رژیم‌های مختلف آبیاری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکترای فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

2 استادیار گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

3 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

چکیده

این پژوهش به منظور بررسی تأثیر کاربرد باکتری تثبیت کننده نیتروژن Azotobacter chroococcum در ترکیب با باکتری حل کننده فسفات Pseudomonas putida بر کاهش اثرهای کمبود آب آبیاری بر سویا رقم تلار تحت شرایط مزرعه مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. آزمایش به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال های 1395-1394 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس اجرا شد. تیمارها شامل چهار سطح آبیاری 15 (شاهد)، 30 (تنش ملایم)، 45 (تنش متوسط) و 60 (تنش شدید) درصد تخلیه رطوبت قابل دسترس خاک و چهار سطح تلقیح بذر با باکتری شامل شاهد یا بدون مصرف باکتری، تلقیح با Azotobacter chroococcum، تلقیح با Pseudomonas putida و تلقیح با هر دو باکتری بودند. آبیاری به‌صورت قطره ای-نواری (T-tape) انجام شد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که اثرات اصلی رژیم آبیاری و کود زیستی بر کلیه صفات اندازه گیری شده به جز تعداد دانه در غلاف معنی دار بود. بیشترین تعداد غلاف در بوته، عملکرد دانه، هورمون‌های ایندول استیک اسید، جیبرلین، سیتوکنین و آبسیزیک اسید موجود در برگ از تیمار کاربرد توأم Azotobacter chroococcum و Pseudomonas putida به دست آمد. بیشترین تعداد غلاف در بوته، دانه در غلاف، عملکرد دانه، هورمون های ایندول استیک اسید، جیبرلین و سیتوکنین در تیمار شاهد و بیشترین هورمون آبسیزیک اسید در تیمار تنش شدید مشاهده گردید. به‌طورکلی، می توان نتیجه گرفت که کاربرد Azotobacter chroococcum به تنهایی موجب افزایش 25 درصد عملکرد دانه نسبت به شاهد، کاربرد Pseudomonas putida به تنهایی موجب افزایش 30 درصد عملکرد دانه نسبت به شاهد و کاربرد توأم هر دو باکتری موجب افزایش 42 درصد عملکرد دانه نسبت به شاهد شد که نشان دهنده توانایی ریزجانداران در افزایش عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد و همچنین افزایش هورمون های محرک رشد در شرایط تنش بوده و در بروز مقاومت در گیاه سویا و کاهش افت شدید عملکرد مؤثر است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


Akbar-Noudehi, D., 2012. Effect of drought stress in different stages of growth on yield and soybean water use efficiency in Mazandaran. Agricultural Knowledge and Sustainable Production. 22(1), 13-23. [In Persian with English summary].

Alizadeh, A., 2011. Soil, Water, Plant Relationship. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Press, 516p. [In Persian].

Biswas, P.K., 2008. Agricultural Microbiology. Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Orient Offset, Delhi-110053, 188-317p.

Estiyar, H.K., Khoei, F.R., Behrouzyar, E.K., 2014. The effect of nitrogen biofertilizer on yield and yield components of white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Dorsa). International Journal of Biosciences. 4(11), 217- 222.

FAO STAT. 2016. FAO statistical database (available at www.fao.org).

Fazeli, F., Najafi Zarini, H., Arefrad, M., Mirabadi, A.Z., 2015. Assessment of relation of morphological traits with seed yield and their diversity in M4 generation of soybean mutant lines (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) through factor analysis. Journal of Crop Breeding. 7(15), 47-56. [In Persian with English summary].

Ge, L., Yong, J.W., Tan, S.N., Yang, X.H., 2004. Rapid extraction of abscisic acid and its metabolites for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography. 10, 108-119.

Glick, B.R., 1995. The enhancement of plant growth by free-living bacteria. Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 41, 109 - 17.

Glick, B.R., Todorovic, B., Czamy, J., Cheng, Z., Duan, J., McConkey, B., 2007. Promotion of plant growth by bacterial ACC deaminase. Critical Reviews in Plant Science.26, 227- 42.

Glick, B.R., Penrose, M.D., Li, J.A., 1998. Model for the lowering of plant ethylene concentration by plant growth-promoting bacteria. Theoretical Biology. 190, 63-8.

Han, H.S., Supanjani, K., Lee, D., 2004. Effect of coinoculation with phosphate and potassium solubilizing bacteria on mineral uptake and growth of pepper and cucumber. Agronomy Journal. 24, 169-176.

Hasanah, Y., Nisa, T.C., Armidin, H., Hanum, H., 2015. Isoflavone content of soybean (Glycine max (L). Merr.) cultivars with different nitrogen sources and growing season under dry land conditions. Journal of Agriculture and Environment for International Development. 109(1), 5-17.

Heba, I.M., Samia, A.A., 2014. Influence of garlic extract on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in soybean plants (Glycine Max) grown under drought stress. Life Science Journal. 11(3), 47-58.

Jnawali, A.D., Ojha, R.B., Marahatta, S., 2015. Role of Azotobacter in soil fertility and sustainability–A review. Advances in Plants & Agriculture Research. 2(6), 1-5.

Karadeniz, A., Topcuiglu, S.F., Inan, S., 2006. Auxin, gibberellins, cytokinin and abscisic acid production in some bacteria. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 22, 1061-1064.

Khajehpour, M.R., 2012. Production of Industrial Crops. Jahad Daneshgahi Press, 251 p. [In Persian].

Kouchebagh, S.B., Mirshekari, B., Farahvash, F., 2012. Improvement of corn yield by seed bio fertilization and urea application. World Applied Sciences Journal. 16(9), 1239-1242.

Liu, F., Jensen, C.R., Anderson, M.N., 2004. Pod set related to photosynthetic rate ad endogenous ABA in soybeans subjected to different water regimes and exogenous ABA and BA at early reproductive stages. Annals of Botany. 94, 405-411.

Mahato, S., Neupane, S., 2017. Comparative study of impact of Azotobacter and Trichoderma with other fertilizers on maize growth. Journal of Maize Research and Development. 3(1), 1-16.

Malek, M.A., Rafii, M.Y., Afroz, M.S.S., Nath, U.K., Mondal, M.M.A., 2014. Morphological characterization and assessment of genetic variability, character association and divergence in soybean mutants. Scientific World Journal. 14, 1-12.

Maleki, A., Naderi, A., Siadat, A., Tahmasebi, A., Fazel, S., 2012. Effect of drought stress on physiological growth stages on yield and yield components of soybeans. Research in Agricultural Sciences. 4(15), 71-82. [In Persian with English summary].

Mayak, S., Tirosh, T., Glick, B., 2004. Plant growth-promoting bacteria that confer resistance to water stress in tomatoes and peppers. Plant Science. 166, 525-530.

Ministry of Agriculture. 2016. Programs and Achievements. Achievements of the agricultural sector in the twelfth government. (available at http://www.pr.maj.ir/portal/Home/). [In Persian].

Mokhtassi-Bidgoli, A., Aghaalikhani, M., Nasiri-Mahallati, M., Zand, E., Gonzalez-Andujar, J.L., Azari, A., 2013. Agronomic performance, seed quality and nitrogen uptake of Descurainia Sophia in response to different nitrogen rates and water regimes. Industrial Crops and Products. 44, 583-592.

Molla, A.H., Shamsuddin, Z.H., Halimi, M.S., Morziah, M., Puteh, A.B., 2001. Potential for enhancement of root growth and nodulation of soybean coinoculated with Azospirillum and Bradoyrhizobacterium in laboratory systems. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 33, 457-463.

Naseri, R., Azadi, S., Rahimi, M.J., Maleki, A., Mirzaei, A., 2013. Effects of Inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum and Pseudomonas putida on yield and some of the important agronomic traits in Barley (Hordeum vulgar L). International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production. 4(7), 1602-1610.

Noumavo, P.A., Nadège, A.A., Baba-Moussa, F., Adolphe, A., Baba-Moussa, L., 2016. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: Beneficial effects for healthy and sustainable agriculture. African Journal of Biotechnology. 15(27), 1452-1463.

Pedersen, P., Lauer, J.G., 2004. Response of soybean yield components to management system and planting date. Agronomy Journal. 96, 1372-1381.

Qados, A.M.S.A., 2014. Effect of ascorbic acid antioxidant on soybean (Glycine max L.) plants grown under water stress conditions. International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Sciences. 1(6), 189-205.

Rostamzadeh-Kaleibar, M., Farboodi, M., Hosseinzadeh-Moghbeli, A., Razmi, N., 2011. The effect of irrigation regimes on yield and yield components of second cultivars of soybean cultivars in Moghan region. Ecophysiology of Crops and Weeds. 20, 15-28. [In Persian with English summary].

SAS., 2012. SAS Version 9.2. SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC.

Setter, T.L., Flannigan, B.A., Melkonian, J., 2001. Loss of kernel set due to water deficit and shade in maize: carbohydrate supplies, abscisic acid, and cytokinins. Crop Science. 41, 1530-1540.

Shengji, H., Zhu, J., Ding, M.Y., 2008. Simultaneous determination of gibberlic acid, indol-3 acetic acid and abscisic acid in wheat extract by solid phase. Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-Talonta. 76, 798-802.

Shokri, S., Sharifi, P., 2016. Effect of phosphate biofertilizer and chemical phosphorus on growth and yield of Vicia faba L. Electronic Journal of Biology. 1, 47-52.

Thompson, A.J., Jackson, A.C., Parker, R.A., Morpeth, D.R., Burbidge, A., Taylor, I.B., 2000. Abscisic acid biosynthesis in tomato: regulation of zeaxanthin epoxidase and 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase mRNAs by light/dark cycles, water stress and abscisic acid. Plant Molecular Biology. 42, 833-845.

Vessey, J.K., 2003. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as biofertilizer. Plant and Soil. 255, 571-586.

Vierstra, R.D., 2003. The ubiquitin/26S proteasome pathway, the complex last chapter in the life of many plant proteins. Trends in Plant Science. 8, 135-142.

Viscardi, S., Ventorino, V., Duran, P., Maggio, A., De Pascale, S., Mora, M.L., Pepe, O., 2016. Assessment of plant growth promoting activities and abiotic stress tolerance of Azotobacter chroococcum strains for a potential use in sustainable agriculture. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 16, 848-863.

Wang, C., Yang, A., Ying, H., Zhang, J., 2008. Influence of Water Stress on Endogenous Hormone Contents and Cell Damage of Maize Seedlings.Journal of Integrative Plant Biology.50(4), 427-434.

Wu, Q.S., Xi, R.X., Zou, Y.N., 2008. Improved soil structure and citrus growth after inoculation with three Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under drought stress. European Journal of Soil Biology. 44, 122-128.

Yassari, E., Rafati Alashti, M., 2009. Comparison of the effects of mineral phosphorous and Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida bacteria on the growth and yield of the soybean cultivar of Sari. Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 3(2), 2706-2711.

Yassari, E., Mozaffari, S., Ghasemi Chapi, O., Jafarzadeh Zoghalchali, H., Shafiei, E., 2014. Effect of inoculation with phosphate solubilizing bacteria and mineral phosphorus levels on growth characteristics and grain yield in soybean (Glycine max) cultivars. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research. 12(4), 693-703. [In Persian with English summary].

Yurekli, F., Banu Porgali, Z., Turkan, I., 2004.Variations in abscisic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, gibberelic acid and zeatin concentration in two bean species subjected to salt stress. Acta Biologica Cracoviensia series botanica. 46, 201-212.

Zahir, A.Z., Arshad, M., Frankenberger, W.F., 2004. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: applications and perspectives in agriculture. Agronomy Advances. 81, 97-168.

Zhang, J.H., Davies, W.J., 1991. Root signal and the regulation of growth and development of plants in drying soil. Annual Reviews in Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology. 42, 55-76.

Zhou, R., Squire, T., Ambrose, M., Abroms, S.J.S., Ross, R., Culter, A.R.S.A.J., 2003. Rapid extraction of abscisic acid and its metabolites for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Journal Chromatography. 1010, 75-85.