بررسی صفات کیفی ارقام کلزا درکشت‌‌های پاییزه و زمستانه تحت تأثیر رژیم‌‌های مختلف آبیاری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری اگرواکولوژی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 استاد موسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج

چکیده

کم‌آبی از مهم­ترین عوامل محدودکننده رشد و تولید گیاهان به‌حساب می­آید و در حال حاضر هیچ راه عملی برای افزایش نزولات جوی در طول دوره ­های خشکی وجود ندارد؛ بنابراین، به نظر می­رسد که بهترین راه مقابله با خشکی، به‌کارگیری عملیات زراعی مناسب و استفاده از ارقامی است که تحمل بیشتری به خشکی داشته باشند. این آزمایش به‌صورت فاکتوریل اسپلیت پلات در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار و به مدت 2 سال(95-1393) در منطقه کرج اجرا شد. در این تحقیق، فصل کشت در دو تاریخ (پائیزه و زمستانه) و آبیاری در سه سطح (آبیاری معمولی یا شاهد، قطع آبیاری از مرحله گل‌دهی به بعد و قطع آبیاری از مرحله خورجین‌دهی به بعد) به‌صورت فاکتوریل به‌عنوان عامل کرت اصلی و ارقام بهاره کلزا شاملجری، جولیوس، ظفر، آرجی اس 003، هایولا 4815 و زابل 10به‌عنوان عامل کرت فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند. بیشترین میانگین اسید لینولئیک در تیمار شاهد و رقم جولیوس، با میانگین 21.77 درصد حاصل شد. نتایج حاکی از آن بود که در تیمار شاهد و قطع آبیاری از مرحله خورجین‌دهی به بعد رقم جولیوس با مقادیر 66.29 و 64.16 درصد بیشترین مقدار اسید اولئیک را نشان داد و در شرایط قطع آبیاری از مرحله گل‌دهی به بعد رقم هایولا 4815 با میانگین 62.26 درصد، بیشترین میانگین را به خود اختصاص داد. اثر سال، فصل کاشت، آبیاری، سال×آبیاری، سال×فصل کاشت×آبیاری، فصل کاشت×آبیاری، رقم، فصل کاشت×رقم، آبیاری×رقم و فصل کاشت×آبیاری×رقم در سطح 1 درصد و اثر سال×فصل کاشت نیز در سطح 5 درصد بر عملکرد دانه و روغن معنی­دار بود. نتایج حاصل از ارزیابی صفات طی دو سال آزمایش مشخص کرد که ارقام جولویس و هایولا 4815 دارای بیشترین عملکرد دانه در شرایط آبیاری بوده و همچنین رقم هایولا 4815 سازگاری مناسبی نیز به شرایط تنش خشکی داشتند؛ بنابراین، می­توان ارقام مذکور را به دلیل داشتن عملکرد دانه و عملکرد روغن بالاتر تحت هر دو شرایط تنش خشکی و بدون تنش؛ جهت کاشت در مناطقی مشابه منطقه اجرای آزمایش (کرج) که احتمال وقوع تنش رطوبتی در مراحل انتهایی رشد وجود دارد، توصیه نمود. همچنین تاریخ کاشت پاییزه موجب افزایش مقادیر عددی شاخص­‌های کیفی کلزا شد.

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