مطالعه اثرات کاربرد تلفیقی کودهای شیمیایی و زیستی پتاسه بر عملکرد و اجزاء عملکرد گندم (.Triticum aestivum L) در شرایط کمبود رطوبت خاک

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد گروه زراعت، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران.

2 استادیار گروه زراعت، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران.

چکیده

به‌منظور تعدیل اثرات کمبود رطوبت خاک بر عملکرد و اجزاء عملکرد گندم، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در سال زراعی 95-1394 در شرایط آب و هوایی اهواز به مورداجرا گذاشته شد. عامل اول رژیم آبیاری بر اساس تشتک تبخیربه صورت 60 (عرف منطقه)، 90 و 120 میلی‌متر و عامل دوم شامل کاربرد تلفیقی کودهای شیمیایی و زیستی پتاسه درچهار سطح به‌صورت کاربرد: کود‌‌ شیمیایی سولفات‌ پتاسیم (شاهد)، کاربرد 75 درصد سولفات پتاسیم+ پتابارور2، کاربرد 50 درصد سولفات پتاسیم + پتابارور2 و کاربرد 25 درصد سولفات پتاسیم + پتابارور2 بود. نتایج نشان داد بین سطوح مختلف رژیم آبیاری تفاوت معنی‌دار ازنظر تعداد سنبله در مترمربع، تعداد دانه در سنبله، وزن هزار دانه و شاخص برداشت مشاهده شد. تأثیر کاربرد توأم کودهای شیمیایی و زیستی به‌جز شاخص برداشت بر سایر صفات معنی‌دار بود. اثر متقابل بین رژیم آبیاری و مصرف توأم کودهای شیمیایی و زیستی بر عملکرد دانه و عملکرد زیستی معنی‌دار بود. بیشترین عملکرد دانه متعلق به آبیاری بر اساس 60 میلی‌متر تبخیر و کاربرد 75 درصد سولفات پتاسیم+ پتابارور2 با 5971 کیلوگرم در هکتار و کمترین مقدار به تیمار آبیاری بر اساس 120 میلی‌متر تبخیر و کاربرد 25 درصد سولفات پتاسیم+ پتابارور2 با 2081 کیلوگرم در هکتار تعلق داشت. درصد افزایش عملکرد دانه در تیمار کاربرد 75 درصد سولفات پتاسیم + پتابارور2 در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد، 12.3 درصد بود.نتایج نشان داد کاربرد باکتری مذکور همراه با کاربرد کود شیمیایی توانست رشد گندم را تحت تأثیر قرار دهد. از طرفی با توجه به اینکه در هر سه رژیم آبیاری عملکرد دانه در شرایط 75 درصد سولفات پتاسیم+ پتابارور2 نسبت به تیمار عدم استفاده از کودهای زیستی (شاهد) افزایش معنی‌دار داشت، لذا این ترکیب کودی را می‌توان در شرایط تنش رطوبتی و بدون تنش رطوبتی در منطقه توصیه کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


Ansari, S., Sarikhani, M., Najafi, N., 2015. Inoculation effects of nitrogen and phosphate biofertilizers on corn in presence of indigenous microflore of soil. Journal of Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production. 24(4), 33-43.  [In Persian with English Summary].

Arquero, O., Barranco, D., Benlloch, M., 2006. Potassium starvation increases stomata conductance in olive trees. Horticulture Science. 41(2), 433- 436.

Amal Ahmed, M.A, Ahmed, G., Mohamed Magda, H., Tawfik, M.M., 2011. Integrated Effect of organic and biofertilizers on wheat productivity in new reclaimed sandy soil. Research Journal of Agriculture Biological Sciences. 7(1), 105-114.

Amujoyegbe, B.J., Opbode, J.T., Olayinka, A., 2007. Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer on yield and chlorophyll content of Zea mays and sorghum bicolour. African Journal of Biotechnology. 6(16), 1869-1873.

Black, C.A., 1993. Soil Fertility Evaluation and Control. First Edition. CRS Press, USA. 768p.

Bray, E.A., 1997. Plant responses to water deficit. Trends in Plant Science. 2(2), 48-54.

Cox, W.I., Jolliff, G.D., 2000. Growth and yield of sunflower and soybean under soil water deficits. Agronomy Journal. 78(2), 226- 230.

 Fiscer, R.A., Masurer, R., 1978. Drought resistance in spring wheat cultivars. I.Grain yield responses. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 29(5), 897-912.

Fredrick, J.R., Below, F.E., Hesketh, J.D., 1990. Carbohydrate, nitrogen and dry matter of maize hybridsunder drought stress. Annals of Botany. 66(4), 407-415.

Friedrich S., Platonova, N.P., Karavaiko, G.I., Stichel, E., Glombitza, F., 1991. Chemical and microbiological soluiblization of silicates. Acta Biotechnologica. 11(3), 187-196.

Fusheng, L., 2006. Potassium and water interaction. International workshop on soil potassium and K fertilizer management. Agricultural College Guangxi University. China. 197p.

Heatherly, L.G., Wesley, R.A., Elmore, C.D., 1990. Corn, sorghum and soybean response to the irrigation in the Mississippi river alluvial plain. Crop Science. 30(3), 665- 672.

Hojattipor, E., Jafari, B., Dorostkar, M., 2014. The effect of integration of biological and chemical fertilizers on yield, yield components and growth indexes of wheat. Journal of Plant Ecophysiology, 5(15), 36-48. . [In Persian with English Summary].

Heydari Sharifabad, H., 2004. Water uptake and transpiration. Ministry of Agriculture- Jahad. National Committee for Drought and Agricultural Drought Publications. 194p. [In Persian].

Khaldrin, B., Islamzadeh, T., 2005. Mineral nutrition of higher plants, Vol. 1, Shiraz University Press. 328p. [In Persian].

Kochaki, A., Sarmadnia, G., 2000. Crops Physiology. Mashhad University Press. 476p. [In Persian].

Li, F.M., Wang, P., Wang, J., Xu, J.Z., 2004. Effects of irrigation before sowing and plastic film mulching on yield and water uptake of spring wheat in semi arid Loess Plateau of China. Agricultural Water Management. 67(2), 77-88.

 Maerere, A.P., Kimbi, G.G., Nonga, D.L.M., 2001. Comparative effectiveness of animal manures on soil chemical properties, yield and root growth of Amaranthus (Amaranthus Cruentus L). African Journal of Science and Technology. 1(4), 14-21.

Malekouti, M.J., Homaee, M., 2004. Fertility of soils in arid zones, problems and solutions. Tarbiat Modares University Press. Tehran. 185p. [In Persian].

Malekouti, M.J., Ghibi, M.N., 2000. Determination of the critical level of effective food elements in soil and fruit. Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization. Agricultural education press. 92p. [In Persian].

Mamghani, R., 1994. Hybridization of crop plants. Shahid Chamran University Press. Iran. [In Persian].

Mansoori, A., 2013. Response of promising line N8119 of wheat to application of phosphate bio-fertilizer. Journal of Crops Improvement (Journal of Agriculture). 15(1), 125-133. [In Persian with English Summary].

Masoume, M.M., Maleki, A., Siaddat, S.A., Beigzade, M., 2013. The effect of zinc and potassium on the quality yield of wheat under drought stress conditions. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences.  13(6), 1164-1170.

Mirzakhani, M., Sajedi A., 2015. Evaluation of biological and chemical fertilizers on fertilizer use efficiency, grain yield and yield components of sunflower. Journal of Agricultural Science. 25(1), 139-153. [In Persian with English Summary].

Mohammadian, R., Ahmadi, M., Ghalebi, S., 2004. Effects of potassium application under different irrigation intervals on yield and water use efficiency of two genotypes of sugar beet in furrow irrigation. Journal of Sugar Beet. 20(1), 55- 72. [In Persian with English Summary].

Mojaddam, M., Modhej, A., 2012. Effect of nitrogen levels on water use efficiency, grain yield and yield components of corn under optimum and drought stress conditions. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research. 10(3), 546-554. [In Persian with English Summary].

Nesmith, D.S., Ritchie, J.T., 1992. Effect of soil water–deficits during tassel emergence on development of maize (Zea Mays L.). Field Crops Research. 28(3), 251-256.

Ouottar, S.R., Jones, R.J., Crookston, R.K., 1987. Effects of water deficit during grain filling on the pattern of maize kernel growth and development. Crop Science. 27(4), 726-730.

Panahi, B., Paknejad, F., Habibi, D., Sadeghi, Nasri, M., Pazaki, A.R., 2012. Evaluation of irrigation regimes on yield and yield componente in different cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Journal of Agronomy and Plant Breeding. 8(2), 185-197. [In Persian with English Summary].

Pandey, R.K., Maranville, J.W., chetima, M.M., 2000. Deficit irrigation and nitrogen effects on maize in a Sahelian environment: II. Shoot growth, nitrogen uptake and water extraction. Agricultural Water Management, 46(1), 15-27.

Rahimi, M.M., Salahizadeh, A.A., 2015. Effect of different levels of irrigation and potassium on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the beans in Yasooj, Iran. European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences. 4(1), 50-56.

Razmi, N., Chasemi, M., 2007. Effect of different irrigation regimes on growth, grain yield and its components of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) cultivars under Isfahan conditions. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences 9(2), 169-183 [In Persian with English Summary].

Salehi, R., maleki, A., dehghanzadeh, H. 2012. Effect of potassium and zinc sulphat application on yield and yield componemts of maiz (SC 704) under drought stress conditions. Crop Production in Environmental Stress. 4(3), 59-70. [In Persian with English Summary].

Saleh Rastin, N. 2001. Biological fertilizers and their role in order to achieve sustainable agriculture. Journal of Soil and Water. Special issue on Biological Fertilizers 23, 19-23. [In Persian with English Summary].

Sepehri, A., Modarres Sanavi, S.A., Gharehyazi, B., Yamini, Y. 2002. Effect of water deficit and different nitrogen rates on growth and development stages, yield and yield component of maize (Zea mays L.). Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences. 4(3), 184-201.

Shata, S.M., Mahmoud, A., Siam, S., 2007. Improving calcareous soil productivity by integrated effect of intercropping and fertilizer. Reacerch Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences. 3(6), 733-739.

Soltani, A., Khooieb, F.R., Ghassemi-Golezani K., Moghaddam, M., 2000. Thresholds for chickpea leaf expansion and transpiration response to soil water deficit. Field Crops Research. 68(3), 205-210.

Sturz, A.V., Christie, B.R., 2003. Beneficial microbial allelopathies in the root zone: the management of soil quality and plant disease with rhizobacteria. Soil and Tillage Research. 72(2), 107-123.

Togay, Y., Togay., N., Cig., F., Erman, M., Celen, A.E., 2008. The effect of sulphur applications on nutrient composition, yield and some yield components of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). African Journal of Biotechnology. 7(18), 3255-3260.

Valdabadi, S.A., Aliabadi Farahani, H., 2010. Studying the interactive effect of potassium application and individual field crops on root penetration under drought condition.  Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology and Sustainable Development. 2(5), 82-86.

Vazques, P., Holguin, G., Puente, M.E., 2000. Phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms associated with the rhizosphere of mangroves in a semiarid coastal lagoon. Biology and Fertility of Soils. 30(5), 460-468.

Wang, J.G., Zhang, F.S., Zhang, X.L., Cao, Y.P., 2000. Release of potassium from K-bearing minerals: Effect of plant roots under P deficiency. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems. 56(1), 45- 52.

Yousefpoor, Z., Yadavi, A., 2014. Effect of biological and chemical fertilizers of nitrogen and phosphorus on quantitative and qualitative yield of sunflower. Journal of Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production. 24(1), 95-112. [In Persian with English Summary].

Yazdani, M., Bahmanyar, M.A., Pirdashti, H., Esmaili, M.A., 2009. Effect of phosphate solubilization microorganisms and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on yield and yield components of corn. International Journal Biological and Life Science. 3(1), 50-52. [In Persian with English Summary].